# Mousewheel event being locked by map

I've got a tabbed UI on my web page, the last tab is an arcgis javascript map built with their API. The problem I'm having is that just adding the map and all of the esri / dojo libraries to the page has caused the mouse scroll wheel to be entirely hijacked by the map. I can't scroll down on any other pages using the mousewheel, and disabling it in the map doesn't seem to do any good.

I've done a bit of work trying to figure out how to unbind the mousewheel events but have had no luck. Basically I want the mousewheel to work as expected if they aren't on the map tab, and zoom in and out if they are on the map tab.

Has anyone had this issue before?

You can turn off navigation via the mouse scroll wheel. The map has a boolean setting for it and functions to enable and disable it.

Your code would look something like this:

function openMapTab() {… map.enableScrollWheelZoom(); } function openNotTheMapTab() {… map.disableScrollWheelZoom(); }

## Off the Map

Planning for Climate Change

Modeling climate change is something that certainly requires immense computing power. Esri’s work in Japan mapped coastal flooding based on a recorded event, but most efforts with respect to coastal risks and resiliency are projections of the potential of global climate change to affect sea levels.

In the last several years, nearly every major coastal city in the world has produced inundation maps using a GIS platform. These are often based on climate models developed by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In a 2000 report, the IPCC established no fewer than 40 emissions scenarios that describe a range of possible future outcomes. These projections take into account demographics, economics, and technology and have been further developed into climate models by a number of organizations, such as NASA. Relying on historical weather data to establish boundary conditions, these groups have modeled in 15-minute increments potential global weather patterns (temperatures, cloud formation, and ocean circulation, to name the most common) well toward the end of the century. These huge data sets can then be mined to develop more locally specific projections of climate change effects, such as increased rainfall or more extreme summer temperatures.

Identifying Energy Opportunities
The National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) has created several GIS maps to help utilities, developers, engineers, and the energy industry quickly identify suitable locations across the country for renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal. Such maps can certainly help in the early stages of design, but the feasibility of specific renewable energy technologies for a project depends on a larger set of issues like the client’s business demands, availability and reliability of local power supplies, government incentives, and sustainability goals. NREL produces other tools, such as the In My Backyard (IMBY) website, which allows building owners to draw a photovoltaic array on their rooftops using Google Earth maps. The program then calculates the potential electricity generation from the array, providing high-level feedback on system size and performance.

Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, use such models to produce GIS-based maps to visualize the consequences of climate change and other natural phenomena to help federal, state, and local government agencies plan for recovery efforts from catastrophic events. Budhendra Bhaduri is head of the Geographic Information Science and Technology Group at Oak Ridge, which produces the LandScan global population map, considered the highest resolution population data set available. Based in an ArcGIS platform, the LandScan map divides the world into 1-km-by-1 km cells. With such detailed data sets, Bhaduri’s team has written proprietary algorithms that can simulate the movement of people in response to occurrences like hurricanes or floods. Such analysis can yield insights into how roads, the electrical grid, or the food supply might fall short when populations are displaced. “Once you have a large group moving to another area, you have to accommodate its needs, acccounting for a stressed-out infrastructure,” says Bhaduri, who considers the visual representation of such migrations one of the key strengths of GIS.

Layering the City

While GIS pervades municipal planning offices and all levels of government, its roles in professional design practice have been largely limited to planning, landscape architecture, and the engineering-rooted disciplines that support infrastructure projects. GIS lacks mention in several recent books, perhaps most curiously in Ecological Urbanism, the 655-page doorstop produced by the Harvard University Graduate School of Design in 2010, which purports to set a new agenda for urban planning. Such omissions suggest that while GIS may be increasingly used and on display, very few architects are explicitly thinking through the new opportunities presented by the infinite amounts of public data now available through Internet resources. However, a few architecture firms are tentatively starting to implement its use.

Urban Site Analysis
Urban planners and architects at Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture in Chicago used a GIS platform, created in Esri’s ArcGIS software, to analyze the existing infrastructure of a 250-acre site for a new city of 100,000 people outside of Chengdu, China. Dennis Rehill, the lead design architect on the project, said the topographical features of the GIS model helped them lay out a road network along the higher ridge lines, setting aside the lower valleys for recreational purposes. “We ended up with a natural intrusion of the valleys into the city landscape, which better integrated the new development into nature,” Rehill says. Esri recently released a new product, CityEngine, which is directed toward simplifying urban planning with a GIS platform for example, designers using the software can lay out an urban road network, which is often one of the major hurdles to a planning project. They can then make changes to the network and CityEngine will recalibrate the turning radius of streets and intersections.

Images courtesy of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Peter Kindel is an urban designer at Chicago-based Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, leading the urban design of a new city proposed for 100,000 people on an approximately 250-acre site outside Chengdu, China. Here, his team employed GIS analysis to identify landscape features and understand the potential for enhancing the natural drainage systems on the greenfield site. “More cities, especially in China, are using GIS as their basic platform for urban planning, so we could build up a series of analytical drawings of watersheds, vegetation, roads, existing structures, land form, and tree cover fairly easily,” says Kindel. After their site analysis using GIS, Kindel and his colleagues shifted to working in Rhino to develop the urban model. So far, the architects have not been able to integrate their architectural process in Rhino with a GIS platform, but they do see that as the next step. “We used over 17 software programs to design this city, so our designers need an incredible amount of knowledge of these different programs,” Kindel says. “Switching between them takes time.”

## Northwestern California Maps

This research guide lists both print and Internet maps that cover northwestern California. The table of contents below lists maps by theme and environment. "Other Sources" lists guides to gis and imagery resources of northwestern California as well as more general guides to California resources that may cover northwestern California.

### Gazetteers

• Durham's Place-Names of California's North Coast: Includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Mendocino and Trinity Counties (Durham) 2000 (F 867.5 D87 2000 - Humboldt County Collection)
• Klamath Places Database (Humboldt State University - Advanced Spatial Analysis Facility) Includes all of the official USGS place names for the Klamath Basin in addition to many more local place names, gauging stations and others. The database is searchable by county, watershed, category and name. Each place name is linked to a location map.
• Place Names of Humboldt County, California: A Compendium, 1542-1992 (Turner) 1993 (F 868 H8 T87 1993 - Reference and Humboldt County Collection) The major compilation of Humboldt County place names containing references to futher sources of information on specific place names.
• Trinity County Historic Sites (Trinity County Historical Society) 1981 (F 868 T6 T76 Humboldt County Collection and bookstacks) Includes historical notes on approximately 500 historical sites and place names in Trinity County. Grouped into seven geographical areas.
• Whipple Well: A Database for Mining, Prospecting, Metal Detecting, And Treasure Hunting in California: Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, and Mendocino County (CalSign) Database of current and historical places names derived from various sources, organized by county. For each entry gives information on type of feature, geographic coordinates and U.S.G.S 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle.

### General

(City of Arcata) Site includes maps available for viewing in either .jpeg or .pdf format, online mapping applications and downloadable gis data.
• Atlas of Human Adaption to Environmental Change, Challenge, and Opportunity: Northern California, Western Oregon, and Western Washington (Christensen, McGinnis, Raettig, & Donoghue) 2000 (USFS General Technical Report PNW-GTR-478) (print copy available in Docs A 13.88:PNW-478) Uses choropleth maps to show changes in the timber industry and in social, economic, and demographic characteristics that have occurred since implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1989. (City of Eureka) Site includes maps available for viewing in .pdf format, online mapping applications and downloadable gis data.
• Humboldt County, California Atlas (Plank) 1974 (G 1528 H8 H85 1974 - Atlas Collection and Humboldt County Collection) Contains 75 maps and charts covering Humboldt County arranged into five major divisions: General Reference, Physical Systems, Economic Systems, Socio-Cultural Systems, and Special Subjects. Humboldt County Web GIS (Humboldt County Community Development Services Department) Series of five online mapping applications covering all Humboldt County. Major datasets that can be can viewed individually or in layers include parcels, zoning, land use, flood zones, fire hazard, seismic safety, roads, streams, USGS topo quads, and aerial photography.
• Maps, Spatial Data, and Photos: Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, and Mendocino County (Land Use Planning Information Network) Contains links to geospatial resouces on the Internet.
• North Coast (California Division of Tourism)
• North Coast/ Klamath Basin (Trust for Public Lands) Map found in State of California Rivers report.
• Russian River Integrated Information System (Russian River Watershed Council) Interactive mapper that includes data layers covering base information, watersheds, water quality, fisheries, soils, land use, vegetation, and aerial photography. : Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, and Mendocino County (U.S. Census Bureau) Interactive mapper allows one to display one or more boundary and street data layers derived from the 1998 TIGER/Line files and 1990 Decennial Census.

### Agriculture & Forestry

• Generalized Types and Age Classes of Timber Stands: Del Norte County, California (US Forest Service) 1953
• Generalized Types and Age Classes of Timber Stands: Humboldt County, California (US Forest Service) 1952
• Generalized Types and Age Classes of Timber Stands: Mendocino County, California (US Forest Service) 1951
• Generalized Types and Age Classes of Timber Stands: Trinity County, California (US Forest Service) 1951
• Generalized Types and Age Classes of Timber Stands: Coast Range Pine Subregion, California (US Forest Service) 1952
• Generalized Types and Age Classes of Timber Stands: Redwood-Douglas Fir Subregion, California (US Forest Service) 1978
• Major Ownership and Land Classes: Coast Range Pine Subregion, California (US Forest Service) 1948
• Major Ownership and Land Classes: Redwood -- Douglas-Fir Subregion, California (US Forest Service) 1949
• Property Maps (Mendocino Redwood Company) Series of maps show major owners of forest land in Mendocino County from 1955 to 2005 in five year increments.
• Timber and Other Vegetation Types, Siskyou County, California (US Forest Service) 1950
• Timber and Vegetation Classes, Northern Mendocino County, California 1945 (US Forest Service) 1945
• Timbered Area, State of California, Northern California (Berkeley Digital Library) California State Conservation Commission map of 1912 shows ownership of private timber lands by timber company.
• Timber-Stand--Vegetation Cover Maps (California Cooperative Soil Vegetation Survey) (map G 4361 K2 s31 U5) Series of 467 maps produced between 1948 and 1962 at a scale of 1:31,680 which map timber stand characteristics in northern California.

### Coast & Ocean

• Regional Profile of the North Coast Study Region (California-Oregon Border to Alder Creek) (California Marine Life Protection Act Initiative) 2010 (print copy available in Cal Docs R960 M36 2010) Prepared for the Marine Life Protection Initiative, the profile and accompanying atlas provide information on the habitats, species, land-sea interactions and socioeconomic setting of California's coast from the California-Oregon border to Alder Creek near Point Arena in Mendocino County. The companion thematic atlas contains large-format maps in two parts -- the Coastal Management & Human Uses Atlas and the Habitat & Species Atlas. Spatial data layers are available at MarineMap.

### Demography

(US Census Bureau) Includes data from the Decennial population census, the annual American Community Survey, the Economic Census conducted every five years and annual economic surveys. Interactive ":reference maps" show selected geographic boundaries and features. "Thematic maps" show geographic patterns in statistical data, such as population or median income, displayed as color-coded areas on a map.
• Census Tract/Block Numbering Area Outline Map (1990) [County] In 1990 Census of Population and Housing: Population and Housing Characteristics for Census Tracts and Block Numbering Areas: California (Outside Metropolitan Areas: Maps (US Census Bureau) (Docs C 3.223/11: 1990 CPH-3-6 Maps) Includes separate census tract maps for Humboldt, Del Norte, Siskiyou, Trinity and Mendocino Counties.
• Census Tract Outline Maps: Humboldt, Del Norte, Siskiyou, Trinity, Mendocino (US Census Bureau) (Print copy available in Docs C3.275 M32 DVD--cd-rom cabinet) PDF maps of 2000 Census tracts. The first map in each county is an index to the tract maps. Similar maps can also be generated using American Factfinder's "reference maps."
• County Block Maps: Humboldt, Del Norte, Siskiyou, Trinity, Mendocino (US Census Bureau) PDF maps of 2000 Census county block maps. The first map in each county is an index to the block maps. Similar maps can also be generated using American Factfinder's Reference Maps.
• 1980 Census Tracts: Humboldt County Calif. In Census Tracts: California: Selected Areas (US Census Bureau) (Docs C 3.223/11: 1980/6 Maps)

### Ecology

• California Coastal Salmon Region Geographic Information (Information Center for the Environment. California Rivers Assessment) Includes a series of maps that show land use and species richness in northwestern California.
• National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish & Wildlife Service) (microfiche copies in Docs I 49.6/7-12 print copies for Humboldt and Del Norte County available in the Humboldt Room Map Case) Series of maps at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:100,000 for the United States which classify wetlands into 55 different classes using the Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States (Cowardin) 1979 (print copy available in Docs I e49.89:79/31). National Wetlands Inventory Maps lists maps available for each state, including California. For additional information see Wetland Mapping and Inventory (US Geological Survey). Wetlands Mapper (US Fish & Wildlife Service) is an interactive mapper that allows one to view National Wetlands Inventory digital data as well as stream and road data. You can also view wetlands data layers with Google Earth.
• North Coast Integrated Regional Water Management Plan Areas of Biological Significance (North Coast Integrated Regional Water Management Plan) Maps Marine Water Quality Protection Areas in Del Norte, Trinity, Humboldt, Mendocino and Sonoma Counties.
• Southern Oregon-Northern California Bioregional Domain Wildlife Habitat Map & Database (Humboldt State University. Spatial Information Systems Institute)
• Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Humboldt Bay and Eel River Delta (US Fish & Wildlife Service) 1987 (print copy available in the Humboldt County Collection Map Case) 1:62,500 scale map recompiled from more detailed National Wetlands Inventory maps that depict six basic wetland types.

### Environmental Pollution

• Central and Northern California Coastal Marine Habitats: Oil Residence and Biological Sensitivity Indices: Final Report (Woodward-Clyde Consultants) 1982 (POCS Technical Paper #83-5) (Docs I 53.29/2:83-5 maps shelved in Documents Map Case) Prepared for the US Minerals Management Service Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Region. Includes a narrative report that describes the geological and biological characteristics of the California coast from Point Conception to the Oregon border the development of biological sensitivity and oil residence indices that identify areas of potential concern in the event of an oil spill and counter measures available to protect or cleanup areas of high concern. The accompanying map set includes a set of 130 1:24,000 scale maps and accompanying legends that characterize in detail physical and biological shoreline features and show biological sensitivity and oil residence indices and a set of eight 1:250,000 scale maps that provide a more general physical characterization of shoreline features and repeat the biological sensitivity and oil residence indices.
• Northern California Environmental Sensitivity Atlas (California Department of Fish and Game. Office of Spill Prevention and Response) Uses USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles as a base map to present three types of information that can be used in oil spill contingency planning and assessment--shoreline classification as it relates to oil contamination sensitivity, sensitive human-use resources such as water intakes, and sensitive biological resources such as seabird colonies. Produced by the US National Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration, Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps are also available as pdf images through the NOS Data Explorer interactive mapper. For further information see ESI Maps. : Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, and Mendocino County (California State Water Resources Control Board) Interactive mapper that emphasizes data layers for Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks (LUFTs) and public drinking water wells. Other available data layers include Underground Storage Tanks (USTs), roads, topography and watersheds.

### Geology

Listed are maps that for the most part are at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller. For site specific studies see the indexes to geologic mapping typically included with these maps and the Indexes and Guides to California geologic mapping.

• Correlation of the Klamath Mountains and the Sierra Nevada (Irwin) 2002) (print copy available in map G 4362 K4 C57 2003) (USGS Open-file Report 02-490) Two sheets portray the broadly parallel tectonic development of the Klamath Mountains and the Sierra Nevada from early Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous.
• Geologic-Landslide Maps (California Department of Forestry) 1979 (map G 4361 C5 s62 C2) Series of maps published on a USGS 15' quadrangle base at a scale of 1:62,500 that map the geology and land form stability of coastal northern California. Originally prepared for use in timber harvest plan preparation they have been superceded in part by the more recent Geology and Geomorphic Features Related to Landsliding series. The Index to Published Landslide Maps, California Coast Ranges, Monterey County and North for Use in Timber Harvest Plan Preparation on Non-Federal Land (Print copy available in Cal Docs C 810 S59 #120) can be used as a guide to the series.
• Geologic Map of California: Redding Sheet (Strand) 1962 (print copy available in Cal Docs C810 G4 R35) Includes 1:250,000 scale geologic map that shows the regional distribution and interrelationships of rock units and major geologic structures present. Accompanying each sheet is an Index to Geologic Mapping used in compilation of the sheet, a Stratigraphic Nomenclature chart, and a list of Topographic Quadrangles used as a base for the sheet. The geologic map also has been collectively published in the Geologic Atlas of California (Atlas G 1526 C5 C25 1968 folio).
• Geologic Map of California: Weed Sheet (Strand) 1963 (print copy available in Cal Docs C810 G4 W4) Includes 1:250,000 scale geologic map that shows the regional distribution and interrelationships of rock units and major geologic structures present. Accompanying each sheet is an Index to Geologic Mapping used in compilation of the sheet, a Stratigraphic Nomenclature chart, and a list of Topographic Quadrangles used as a base for the sheet. The geologic map also has been collectively published in the Geologic Atlas of California (Atlas G 1526 C5 C25 1968 folio).
• Geologic Map of the Klamath Mountains (Irwin) 1994 (USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-2148) (G 4362 K4 1994 I78 Hum Co Coll) Geologic map at a scale of 1:500,000. Cumulation of many years of work by William P. Irwin in the Klamath Mountains. Includes Index to Sources of Map Data.
• Geologic Map of the Red Bluff 30'x60' Quadrangle, California (Blake) 2000 (USGS Geologic Investigations Series I-2542) (print copy available in Docs I 19.91:I-2542) Geologic map at a scale of 1:100,000.
• Geologic Map of the Redding 1x2 Degree Quadrangle, Shasta, Tehama, Humboldt, and Trinity Counties, California (Fraticelli, et al) 1987 (USGS Open File Report 87-257) (print copy available in Docs I 19.76:87-257) Geologic map at a scale of 1:250,000.
• Geology of the Cape Mendocino, Eureka, Garberville, and Southwestern Part of the Hayfork 30x60 Minute Quadrangles and Adjacent Offshore Area, Northern California (McLaughlin, et al.) 2000 (USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies MF 2336)( print copy available in the Humboldt Room Map Case) Geologic map at a scale of 1:100,000. Maps and report available in postscript, pdf, and Arc/Info export formats.
• Geology and Geomorphic Features Related to Landsliding (California Division of Mines and Geology and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) Using USGS 1:24,000 quadrangles as a base this series provides detailed mapping of the geology and geomorphic features affecting landslide potential, soil erosion, and streambank erosion in sensitive watersheds mainly in Mendocino, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties of California.
(Cal Docs C 810 O63 various numbers and Humboldt County Collection map files cd-rom version containing both pdf and GIS files is available in Cal Docs C810 W39) Set of 60 quadrangles produced between 1982-1985. CGS/CDF Watersheds Mapping includes a description and index to these maps The pdf versions contain two layers--"Geologic Features Map" and "Geomorphic Features Map". Includes additional geological, landslide and landslide potential mapping organized by watershed and which is available on cd-rom or by download. Includes both pdf and gis files.
• Noyo River (cd-rom available in CalDocs C810 N69cd)
• Freshwater Creek (cd-rom available in G 4363 H8 F35 2002 Hum Co Coll)
• Elk River (cd-rom available in GB 991 C2 M37 2005 Hum Co Coll)
• Gualala River
• Redwood Creek
• Mattole River
• Albion River
• Big River

### Historical

(Streamline Planning Consultants) Map shows Arcata historic districts and post World War II subdivisions.
• Atlas of Humboldt County, California Compiled from Official Records and Private Sources and Surveys (Belcher Abstract & Title Co) 1921-22. Shows drainage, settlements, roads, trails, railroads, township and section lines, parcel ownership, and Indian allotments. Atlas of the World: Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, and Mendocino County (Rand McNally) 1895 (Duflot de Mofras) 1844. Map of Trinidad Harbor published in Exploration Du Territoire De L'Oregon, Des Californies Et De La Mer Vermeille, Executee Pendant Les Annees 1840, 1841 Et 1842.
• Eureka, Humboldt County, California (Library of Congress) Image of 1902 Noe and Georgeson panoramic map of Eureka. (Print copies also available in the Humboldt Room Map Case.) (Thygeson) Survey conducted in 1884 for the Belcher Abstract & Title Co. Six sheet "Sanborn"-type map shows outlines of buildings, along with ownership in some cases. Includes many of the major lumber mills.
• Historical Map and Chart Collection (US NOAA. Office of Coast Survey) Contains over 20,000 maps and charts from the late 1700s to present day. The Collection includes some of the earliest US nautical charts, hydrographic surveys, topographic surveys, bathymetric maps, geodetic surveys, city plans and Civil War battle maps. Search by keyword, geographic area, type of map, date, or chart number.
• Metsker's Atlas of Del Norte County, California (Metsker Maps) 1949 (G 1528 D4 M47 1949 Humboldt County Collection) Series of township-based maps that show land ownership as well as basic physical and cultural features.
• Metsker's Atlas of Humboldt County, California (Metsker Maps) 1950 (G 1528 H8 G46 M47 1950 Humboldt County Collection) Series of township-based maps that show land ownership as well as basic physical and cultural features.
• Northern California (Holdredge) 1866. Map stretches from California's northern border to San Francisco Bay. Contained within the David Rumsey Collection.
• Nouvelle Californie IN Atlas universel de géographie physique, politique, statistique et minéralogique sur l'échelle de 1/1641836 ou d'une ligne par 1900 toises / (Vandermaelen) 1827. Maps shows northern California. Contained within the David Rumsey Collection.
• Place Names of Humboldt County, California: A Compendium, 1542-1992 (Turner) 1993 (F 868 H8 T87 1993 - Reference and Humboldt County Collection) The appendices include maps covering the formation of Humboldt County California historical landmarks in Humboldt County historical sites/spots in Humboldt County Humboldt County ferries/crossings and fords Humboldt County trails and wagon roads harbors/ports/landings/wharfs and railroads of Humboldt County.
• Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps - Starting in 1867 the Sanborn Map Company began the production of fire insurance maps that eventually covered 12,000 communities in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. These large scale maps, drawn at scales of 1"=50' and 1"=100', were created to assist fire insurance agents in determining the degree of risk associated with commercial, industrial, and residential property within a community. Shown on the maps are the "footprints" of individual buildings, including their dimensions, shape, height, location of doors and windows, building material, and uses and other property details and city improvements, including lot lines, street widths, fire hydrants, and other fire-fighting facilities. A key to map notations provided by the Sanborn Map Company is available.
Today these maps frequently represent the most detailed information on historical urban land use and are used by scholars and professionals in history, geography, architecture, and environmental engineering. For additional background information on fire insurance maps see:
• Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps (UC Berkeley Map Library) This is the introduction found in Fire Insurance Maps in the Library of Congress: A Checklist (Library of Congress. Geography and Map Division) 1981 (Docs LC 5.2:F51) that lists fire insurance maps found in the Library of Congress.
• Fire Insurance Maps: Their History and Applications (Oswald) 1997 (HG 9771 O89 1997)
• Insurance Maps, Eureka, California (Sanborn Map Company) 1920 with updates through 1949 (G 1529 E9 S3 1920 Hum Co Coll) An atlas volume with individual sheets covering Eureka on a block-by-block basis.
• California Maps: North-Coast Towns, 1886-1946 (Shkurkin) 1986 (microfilm MF 2503 and selected print reproductions in Humboldt Room Map Case) Contains fire insurance maps for 23 towns in Humboldt and Mendocino Counties. See Index to California Maps: North-Coast Towns, 1886-1946 for a list of available towns and dates of coverage.
• University of California, Berkeley Earth Sciences and Map Library
• University of California, Davis Government Information and Maps Department
• California State University, Northridge Geography Map Library

### Land Ownership and Use

• Arcata Community Forest 3D Map (City of Arcata) (Streamline Planning Consultants) Map shows Arcata historic districts and post World War II subdivisions.
• Atlas of Humboldt County, California Compiled from Official Records and Private Sources and Surveys (Belcher Abstract & Title Co) 1921-22. Shows drainage, settlements, roads, trails, railroads, township and section lines, parcel ownership, and Indian allotments.
• Coastal Assessment and Data Synthesis System (CA&DS) Land Use and Population: Eel River Estuarine Drainage Area, Humboldt Bay Estuarine Drainage Area, Klamath River Estuarine Drainage Area (US National Ocean Service. Special Projects Office) Contains static images generated from an interactive mapper one can also use the Make a Map interactive mapper to create custom maps for each watershed that includes data layers for eight major themes (population, estuarine living marine resources, land use/land cover, shellfish harvest, hydrology, eutrophication, and socioeconomic). (Thygeson) Survey conducted in 1884 for the Belcher Abstract & Title Co. Six sheet "Sanborn"-type map shows outlines of buildings, along with ownership in some cases. Includes many of the major lumber mills.
• Humboldt Bay Wetlands Review & Baylands Analysis (Shapiro & Associates) 1980 (F 868 H8 S532 1980 Hum Co Coll) Three volume report prepared for the US Army Corps of Engineers that reviews and maps the physical, biological, land use and cultural resources of Humboldt Bay and its environs. Vol. 3 and accompanying 25 sheet map set at a scale of 1:6000 (map set filed in Humbold Room map case) classify land use into 17 general classes and wetlands into 20 classes that can be equated to the National Wetlands Inventory classification system. (Humboldt County Community Development Services) 2002. Also includes statistical table by land use category that shows # of parcels, acreage and % of county with that land use.
• Interactive Housing Inventory Mapping System (Humboldt County Community Development Services) Interactive map of all parcels in Humboldt County. Use the interactive map or search by parcel number, street address, or by matching criteria such as size, zoning, and housing density. An aerial photography background can be turned on. Each parcel contain information on zoning, assessment value, size in acres, constrained acres, developable acreas, and maximum number of dwelling units. Designed to receive feedback on parcels included in the County's Housing Inventory. (Humboldt County Community Services District) 2002. Maps the 18 largest private land holdings plus others with more than 640 acres. Tables shows 40 largest private land owners with statistics for # of parcels and acreage and all land ownership in Humboldt County subdivided by private lands and public lands. (Humboldt County Community Services District) 2002. Maps federal, state, local jurisdiction and tribal lands in Humboldt County. Statistical table shows acreage and # of parcels by agency.
• Klamath River Basin Land Use/Land Cover Map (US Natural Resources Conservation Service)
• Klamath-Siskiyou Ownership (low resolution, high resolution) (Conservation Biology Institute)
• Klamath-Siskiyou Roadless Areas by Size Class(low resolution, high resolution) (Conservation Biology Institute)
• Major Ownership and Land Classes: Coast Range Pine Subregion, California (US Forest Service) 1948
• Major Ownership and Land Classes: Redwood -- Douglas-Fir Subregion, California (US Forest Service) 1949
• National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish & Wildlife Service) (print copies for Humboldt and Del Norte County available in the Humboldt Room Map Case) Series of maps at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:100,000 for the United States which classify wetlands into 55 different classes using Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States (Cowardin) 1979 (print copy available in Docs I 49.89:79/31). For additional information see Wetland Mapping and Inventory (US Geological Survey). Wetlands Interactive Mapper Tool (US Fish & Wildlife Service) is an interactive mapper that allows one to view National Wetlands Inventory digital data as well as stream and road data. Also includes a link to the Microsoft TerraServer which allows one to view an aerial photograph or topographic map of the same area being viewed.
• North Coast/Klamath CERES Bioregion: Land Ownership (CERES) Static map generated from ICE Maps.
• North Coast/Klamath CERES Bioregion: Land Use/Land Cover (CERES) Static map generated from ICE maps.
• Property Maps (Mendocino Redwood Company) Series of maps show major owners of forest land in Mendocino County from 1955 to 2005 in five year increments.
• Six Rivers National Forest Inventoried Roadless Areas (US Forest Service) Prepared for USFS Roadless Area Conservation Final EIS.
• Timbered Area, State of California, Northern California (Berkeley Digital Library) California State Conservation Commission map of 1912 shows ownership of private timber lands by timber company.
• Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Humboldt Bay and Eel River Delta (US Fish & Wildlife Service) 1987 (print copy available in the Humboldt County Collection Map Case) 1:62,500 scale map recompiled from more detailed National Wetlands Inventory maps that depict six basic wetland types.

### Marine

(Duflot de Mofras) 1844. Map of Trinidad Harbor published in Exploration Du Territoire De L'Oregon, Des Californies Et De La Mer Vermeille, Executee Pendant Les Annees 1840, 1841 Et 1842.
• Bathymetry of the Northern California Continental Shelf (California Department of Fish and Game) Map found in California's Living Marine Resources: A Status Report.
• Central and Northern California Coastal Marine Habitats: Oil Residence and Biological Sensitivity Indices: Final Report (Woodward-Clyde Consultants) 1982 (POCS Technical Paper #83-5) (Docs I 53.29/2:83-5 maps shelved in Documents Map Case) Prepared for the US Minerals Management Service Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Region. Includes a narrative report that describes the geological and biological characteristics of the California coast from Point Conception to the Oregon border the development of biological sensitivity and oil residence indices that identify areas of potential concern in the event of an oil spill and counter measures available to protect or cleanup areas of high concern. The accompanying map set includes a set of 130 1:24,000 scale maps and accompanying legends that characterize in detail physical and biological shoreline features and show biological sensitivity and oil residence indices and a set of eight 1:250,000 scale maps that provide a more general physical characterization of shoreline features and repeat the biological sensitivity and oil residence indices. (US National Ocean Service) This part of the NOS Data Explorer provides access to historical planimetric or topographic coastal survey maps (also known at T-sheets) that precisely define the shoreline and nearshore natural and manmade features, such as rocks, bulkheads, jetties, piers, and ramps. Maps range in scale from 1:5,000 to 1:40,000 and serve as the basic database of shoreline and topography used in the production of nautical charts. Historical data from these surveys is often used in litigation to determine property ownership, to enforce regulatory mandates, and to estimate rates of shoreline change. The NOS server includes tif images of 6,000 coastal suvery maps. Northwestern California suveys date between 1919 and 1950 and range in scale from 1:10,000 to 1:20,000. Within the NOS Data Explorer click on the "Topics" tab, draw a search box to specify the northwestern California geographic area and under "Choose Topics" select "Shoreline-Shoreline Surveys". On the resulting map use the the "Link to Data" tab to create a list of available surveys. (Note: if the tif image does not open, right click on the image you want to view and choose the "Save Target as. " option to save the file then use an image editor to view the image.) : Northern California (US Coast Survey) Highly detailed topographic maps of the northern California shoreline that were created by the US Coast Survey. Maps for the northwest coast dates from 1854 to 1871. The "T-Sheets" contain historical information such as locations of buildings and detailed descriptions of shorelines.
• Northern California Environmental Sensitivity Atlas (National Ocean Survice. Office of Spill Prevention and Response) Uses USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles as a base map to present three types of information that can be used in oil spill contingency planning and assessment--shoreline classification as it relates to oil contamination sensitivity, sensitive human-use resources such as water intakes, and sensitive biological resources such as seabird colonies. Produced by the US National Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration, Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps are also available as pdf images through the NOS Data Explorer interactive mapper. For further information see ESI Maps.
• Geology of the Northern California Continental Margin (Clarke & Field) 1989 (Cal Docs C 810 C66 #7) Part of the California Continental Margin Geologic Map Series published by the California Division of Mines and Geology. Includes four maps at a scale of 1:250,000: Geologic Map Bouquer Gravely and Magnetic Anomaly Earthquake Epicenters and Selected Fault Plane Solutions and Well Location, Geophysical Trackline and Data Source Map. Geology of the California Continental Margin (CDMG Bulletin 207) (Cal Doc C 810 B9 #207) contains an explanation of the entire map series along with a 37-page bibliography.
• Nautical Charts (US Coast and Geodetic Survey and US National Ocean Service)
• Historical nautical charts of Northwestern California are available in the Humboldt Room Map Collection.
• Historical Map and Chart Collection (US NOAA. Office of Coast Survey) Contains over 20,000 maps and charts from the late 1700s to present day. The Collection includes some of the earliest US nautical charts, hydrographic surveys, topographic surveys, bathymetric maps, geodetic surveys, city plans and Civil War battle maps. Search by keyword, geographic area, type of map, date, or chart number. (Maptech) Displays National Ocean Service nautical charts (general, coastal, and harbor) for the coastal and Great Lakes regions of the United States. Search for charts by placename, zip code, or geographic coordinate. For a geographic area several scales may be available. One can pan to adjacent charts and display portions of each chart at 100% or 50% resolution. Print, save, or email what is being displayed.
• U.S. Coastal Maps (US National Ocean Service. Office of Coast Survey) US nautical charts that have been cleaned of all navigational aides and symbols leaving just cultural, hydrographic and topographic features. Available for online viewing as .jpeg files and for download into a GIS as a georeferenced .tiff file.

### Natural Communities & Habitats

• Klamath-Siskiyou Physical Habitat Types(low resolution, high resolution (Conservation Biology Institute) See Klamath-Siskiyou Conservation Assessment for code key.
• Wildlife Habitats: Multi-Source Land Cover Data: Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, Mendocino County (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) 2004. Compiled for the Forest and Range 2002 Assessment using California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System habitats.

### Natural Hazards

• Annual Seismicity Maps for the Cape Mendocino Area (Berkeley Seismological Lab ) Includes annual maps from 1998 to the present that cover from Shelter Cove to the northern California border. Also includes links to maps covering the most recent week, most recent month and current year to date. For each map includes list of plotted earthquakes.
• Depth to the Juan De Fuca Slab Beneath the Cascadia Subduction Margin--A 3-D Model for sorting Earthquakes (McCrory, Blair, Oppenheimer, and Walter) 2004 (cd-rom copy available in Docs I 19.121:19) Model of the Juan de Fuca slab beneath southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California separates earthquakes occurring above and below the slab surface. Includes maps, gis files, files of earthquakes above and below the slab surface and a 3-D animation or fly-through showing a shaded-relief map with plate boundaries, the slab surface, and hypocenters for use as a visualization tool.
• Earthquake Fault Zone Maps (formerly Special Studies Zone Maps) (California Divison of Mines and Geology) (print maps for northwestern California are located in the Humboldt County Collection Map Case for the rest of California see Digital Images of Official Maps of Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zones of California, a series of three cd-roms that contain Earthquake Fault Zone Maps for the entire state (Cal Docs C 810 A57)) Series of maps at a scale of 1:24,000 showing regulatory zones around surface traces of active faults in California. Produced under the authority of the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, they are used in planning and controlling of construction in these zones.. Fault-Rupture Hazard Zones in California (CDMG Special Publication #42) ( print copy available in Cal Docs C 810 S59) contains a detailed description of the mapping program and an index to available maps. The Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zones also provides background material and an Index to Official Maps of Earthquake Fault Zones.
• Earthquake Shaking Potential for the North Coast Region (California Seismic Safety Commission) 2003 Map shows the relative intensity of ground shaking and damage in the North Coast Region of California from anticipated future earthquakes.
• Earthquakes, Tsunami and Preparedness (Humboldt State University Geology Department) Links to maps, tables, reports and bibliographies on current and historical earthquakes and tsunamis on the northcoast of California.
• Flood Insurance Rate Map - FIRM (US Federal Emergency Management Agency. National Flood Insurance Program) (Print maps for Humboldt and Del Norte Counties are available in the Humboldt County Collection Map Case) Series of flood risk maps that show roads, lakes, railroads, streams, special flood hazard areas - SFHA (areas subject to inundation by a flood that has a 1% or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded during any given year), base elevations or depths, flood insurance risk zones, and regulatory floodways. Scales range from 1:6,000 to 1:24,000. Information presented is based on historic, meteorolgic, hydrologic, and hydraulic data, as well as open-space conditions, flood control works, and development that is gathered through FEMA engineering studies referred to as Flood Insurance Studies (FISs). See Northwestern California/Klamath Bioregion Environment Information Sources--Natural Hazards for further information on access to FISs. The FEMA Mapping Information Platform is an interactive mapper that allows one to search, view and print flood hazard maps which are based upon FIRM maps. The FEMA Map Service Center contains viewable FIRM maps for Humboldt County, Humboldt County Natural Resources and Hazards Report (Humboldt County Planning Department) Prepared as a backgound document for the county General Plan update. The report provides an assessment of current conditions related to water (surface, ground, and pollution) and watersheds biological resources (vegetation, fisheries, and special status species) forest lands (including Timberland Production Zones) agricultural production (including soils and economic structure) parks, recreation, and open space cultural resources (historical and archaeological sites and landmarks) mineral and energy (sand and gravel, rock, metal, and oil and gas) scenic qualities and air quality (climate and pollutants). Potential hazards evaluated in this report are geotechnical, soil, and seismic flooding fire and toxics and noise. The report includes a large collection of supporting maps and figures.
• Humboldt County Web GIS (Humboldt County Community Development Services Department) Series of five online mapping applications covering all Humboldt County. Major datasets that can be can viewed individually or in layers include parcels, zoning, land use, flood zones, fire hazard, seismic safety, roads, streams, USGS topo quads, and aerial photography.
• Map Showing Known or Suspected Faults with Quaternary Displacement in the Pacific Northwest (Rogers, Walsh, Kockelman and Priest) 1996 IN Assessing Earthquake Hazards and Reducing Risk in the Pacific Northwest. Plate 1) 1996 (Docs I 19.16:1560) (USGS Professional Paper 1560) Map at 1:2M covers northern California to British Columbia.
• Natural Hazards Disclosure (Fire) Maps: Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, Mendocino County (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) County maps show two types of fire hazard areas referenced in California legislation as disclosure items in real estate transactions: Very High Fire Hazard Severity Zones (VHFHSZ) in Local Responsibility Areas (LRA) and Wildland Areas That May Contain Substantial Forest Fire Risks and Hazards in State Responsibility Areas (SRA). Can be viewed online as a pdf file or downloaded in shapefile format for GIS use.
• Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Map of California: Crescent City, Weed, Eureka, Redding, and Ukiah (California Geological Survey) Series of maps for every 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle in California showing contours of probabilistic ground shaking (Peak Ground Acceleration [PGA], 10% probability of being exceeded in 50 years, assuming a uniform soft rock site condition).
• Recent Earthquakes in California and Nevada (US Geological Survey) Includes Northwestern California. Includes magnitudes and other preliminary report information for earthquakes recorded in the "last hour," "last day," and "last week."
• Tsunami Hazard Maps (Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group) Includes tsunami harzard maps for Humboldt Bay, Eel River basin and Crescent City.

### Recreation

• Arcata Communty Forest Trails Map (City of Arcata)
• Arcata Community Forest 3D Map (City of Arcata)
• Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park (California State Parks) (print copy available in Cal Docs P 155 P4) Park brochure and map.
• Humboldt Bay Area Bike Map (Redwood Community Action Agency)
• Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park (California State Parks) (print copy available in Cal Docs P 155 P4) Park brochure and map.
• King Range National Conservation Area (U.S. Bureau of Land Management)
• Patrick's Point State Park (California State Parks) (print copy available in Cal Docs ) Park brochure and map.
• Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park (California State Parks) (print copy available in Cal Docs P 155 P4) Park brochure and map.
• Redwood National Park Map (U.S. National Park Service) Image from RNP brochure.
• Redwood National and State Parks- North Detail Map (U.S National Park Service) Image from Redwood National Park Handbook, pages 92 & 93.
• Redwood National and State Parks- South Detail Map (U.S. National Park Service) Image from Redwood National Park Handbook, pages 94 & 95.
• Shasta-Trinity National Forest Map (Shasta-Trinity National Forest) Elevational map available in several formats.
• Sinkyone Wilderness State Park (California State Parks) (print copy available in Cal Docs P 155 P4) Park brochure and map.
• Standish-Hickey State Recreation Area (California State Parks) (print copy available in Cal Docs P 155 P4) Park brochure and map.

For northwestern California soil maps, associated reports and data on individual soil series see Northwestern California/Klamath Bioregion Environment Information Sources-Soils.

The Humboldt Room pamplet collection contains street and road maps for many Humboldt cities and towns. They are filed under [name of politicial unit--maps]

• Humboldt Bay Area Bike Map (Redwood Community Action Agency) : Humboldt County, Del Norte/Southern Oregon Region, Mendocino County (Regional Visitor Publications) For each area contains a mileage chart, a regional or county map, and maps of selective cities and tourist areas.
• Street Map of Northern Humboldt (Neer Cartography) Includes the City of Trinidad and the communities of Westhaven, Big Lagoon, and Orick.
• Street Map of Arcata and Vicinity (Neer Cartography) Includes the cities of Arcata and Blue Lake and the communities of Glendale, Sunnybrae, Bayside, and Manila.
• Street Map of Eureka and Vicinity (Neer Cartography) Includes the city of Eureka and the communities of Bayview, Cutten, Fairhaven, Fields Landing, Freshwater, Humboldt Hill, King Salmon, Pineview, Ridgewood Heights, and Samoa.
• Street Map of McKinleyville (Neer Cartography)

### Topography

• USGS Topographic Quadrangles Recent quads are located in the HSU Map Collection. Older 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 topographic quadrangles of northwestern California are kept in map cabinets in the Humboldt Room and are also available on microfilm (MF 2370). The Map Index to Topographic Quadrangles of the United States, 1882-1940 (ref GA 405 M64 1985) provides indexing for this microfilm set.
• Mid-Humboldt County Topographic Mapping (Map G 4363 H8 C1 1969 Hum Co Coll) Map series at a scale of 1:6,000.
• USGS Orthophotoquad Maps These are USGS 1:24,000 orthophoto "maps". The HSU Library has in the Humboldt Room coverage for northwestern California dating between 1976 and 1990. Orthophotoquad maps are also available online at both TerraServer and TerraFly.
• Topo! Mount Shasta, Lassen Wilderness and the Trinity Alps (Wildflower Productions) 1999 (Atlas G 1526 C28 W55 1999--filed at geospatial computers near the HSU Map Collection) CD-ROM includes 1:24,000 and 1:100,000 USGS topographic maps that cover Mount Shasta, Trinity Alps, Lassen National Park, Marble Mountains, Russian Wilderness, and other recreation areas and national forests in northern California. Zoom through increasing levels of display print a custom map save maps in a number of raster formats draw a freehand route that displays distances and generates an elevation profile.

### Vegetation

• Analysis of Map River Delta, 1854-1862 Compared with Mad River, 1995-1997 (City of Arcata) Shows distribution of vegetation from Humboldt Bay to the Mad River based upon maps published in 1854 and 1870.
• California Vegetation: Humboldt County, Del Norte County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County, and Mendocino County (International Center for the Environment) Series of maps generated from ICE Maps using the CalVeg vegetation layer.
• Klamath-Siskiyou Dominant Vegetation Types (low resolution, high resolution (Conservation Biology Institute) See Klamath-Siskiyou Conservation Assessment for code key.
• Russian River Watershed Vegetation Map (Brooks) Generated from the the CalVeg landcover gis layer for California.
• Timber-Stand--Vegetation Cover Maps (California Cooperative Soil Vegetation Survey) (map G 4361 K2 s31 U5) Series of 467 maps produced between 1948 and 1962 at a scale of 1:31,680 which depicts timber characteristics in northern California.
• Vegetation in the Northwest Ecoregion (Information Center for the Environment)
• Soil-Vegetation Maps (California Cooperative Soil Vegetation Survey) (map G 4361 J3 s31 U5) Ongoing series that maps the soil and vegetation characteristics in units as small as 10 acres at scales of 1:31,680 and 1:24,000. Each map sheet covers the same geographic area as a USGS 1:24,000 topographic map. Geographic coverage is mostly northern California. See the index on the Map Display Panel in the Atlas and Map Collection for extent of coverage. Located in the upright map filing cabinet in the Atlas and Map Collection are explanatory guides for each individual map as well general guides for the series, all of which contain keys to the map symbols.
• Vegetation Types - North Coast/Klamath Bioregion (CERES)

### Water Resources and Quality

• Average Annual Precipitation and Runoff in North Coastal California (Rantz) 1968 (USGS Hydrological Investigations Atlas HA-298) (print copy available in QC 925.1 U8 C27 1968 Humboldt County Collection)
• Klamath River Basin Map (Klamath River Basin Fisheries Task Force) From Long Range Plan For The Klamath River Basin Conservation Area Fishery Restoration Program. Show sub-basin outlines.
• North Coast Integrated Regional Water Management Plan Maps ( North Coast Integrated Regional Water Management Plan) Interactive mapper that allow one view themes by geography--counties, planning watersheds, hydologic areas and hydrologic units. Themes include hillshading, DEM, cultural features, streams and rivers, watersheds and hydrologic boundaries.
• North Coast Watershed Assessment ProgramInteractive GIS Maps (California Resources Agency) Series of interactive mappers that include data layers encompassing base information, hydrography, timber harvesting, vegetation and habitat types.
• Gualala River Watershed
• Mattole River Watershed
• Redwood Creek Watershed

### Weather & Climate

• Average Annual Precipitation and Runoff in North Coastal California (Rantz) 1968 (USGS Hydrological Investigations Atlas HA-298) (QC 925.1 U8 C27 1968 Humboldt County Collection)
• Average Annual Precipitation (Inches): Northern California: Period 1961-1990 (Western Region Climate Center) PRISM precipitation map created by the Oregon Climate Center.
• Average Annual Water Loss and Evaporation from Water Surfaces (Figure 5) IN Surface Water Hydrology of Coastal Basins of Northern California (Rantz) 1964 (US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1758) (GB 1225 C3 R3 Hum Co Coll)
• Distribution of Mean Seasonal Precipitation in North Coastal Area (Plate 2) IN Hydrologic Data: 1963 (California Department of Water Resources) 1965 (Bulletin 130-163) (Cal Docs W 750 B9 130-63)
• Isohyetal Map of Coastal Basins of Northern California Showing Mean Annual Precipitation for the 60-year Period, 1900-1959 (Plate II) IN Surface Water Hydrology of Coastal Basins of Northern California (Rantz) 1964 (US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1758) (GB 1225 C3 R3 Hum Co Coll)
• Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States. Vol. 11. California (US National Weather Service) 1973 (Docs C 55.22 folio) Contains series of precipitation-frequency maps at a scale of 1:2 million for 6 and 24-hour durations for return periods from 2 to 100 years for Northern California and Southern California. These same maps are also available at Western U.S. Preciptation Frequency Maps (Western Regional Climate Center) (U.S. National Weather Service. California-Nevada River Forecast Center) Contains real-time maps of precipitation during the most recent 1-hour, 6-hour, and 24-hour periods. Includes a Northern California Coast regional map. A complementary Rainfall Maps site is maintained by the California Department of Water Resources.

### Humboldt Bay and Other Estuarine Environments

• Listing of Available Maps and Charts by Date, Appendix B in Humboldt Bay, California, Entrance Channel. Report 1: Data Review (Costa and Glatzel) 2002 (print copy available in TC 225 H8 C67 2002 Hum Co Coll). Lists by date (with the earliest map being 1850) available maps and charts that include Humboldt Bay. Metadata is included for each map including along with location of availability. The overall report provides an inventory and review of historical and recent data describing Humboldt Bay and the adjacent littoral cell. The review was prepared for the US Army Corps of Engineers Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) study of the Humboldt Bay entrance.
• Analysis of Mad River Delta, 1854-1862 Compared with Mad River, 1995-1997 (City of Arcata) Shows distribution of vegetation from Humboldt Bay to the Mad River based upon maps published in 1854 and 1870. (Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education) Includes news, maps, reports and water quality and temperature data for Humboldt Bay.
• Historic Atlas of Humboldt Bay and the Eel River Delta (Laird) 2008. CD-ROM containing geo-referenced historical maps and aerial photography dating from 1854 to 2005. Requires ArcExplorer for viewing.
• Humboldt Bay Atlas (Humboldt Bay Harbor, Recreation and Conservation District) Geographical information system containing biological, physical and infrastructure data for Humboldt Bay includes interactive maps, pdf maps and a depository of downloadable gis coverages.
• Humboldt Bay Coastal Chart (US National Ocean Service. Office of Coast Survey) US nautical charts that have been cleaned of all navigational aides and symbols leaving just cultural, hydrographic and topographic features. Available for online viewing as a .jpeg file and a georeferenced .tiff file for GIS use. (US National Ocean Service)
• Humboldt Bay Wetlands Review & Baylands Analysis (Shapiro & Associates) 1980 (F 868 H8 S532 1980 Hum Co Coll) Three volume report prepared for the US Army Corps of Engineers that reviews and maps the physical, biological, land use and cultural resources of Humboldt Bay and its environs.
• Vol. 2 contains the main review and supporting maps.
• Vol. 3 and accompanying 25 sheet map set at a scale of 1:6000 (map set filed in Humbold Room map case) classify land use into 17 general classes and wetlands into 20 classes that can be equated to the National Wetlands Inventory classification system.

### Redwoods

• Prehistoric Worldwide Redwood Distribution (U.S. National Park Service) Image from Redwood National Park Handbook, page 37.
• Redwood Range Perspective Map (U.S. National Park Service) Image from Redwood National Park Handbook, page 36 & 37.

Last Update by Robert Sathrum on November 19, 2008
Other updates on April 20, 2015

The Library · Humboldt State University · One Harpst St · Arcata · California · 95521-8299
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## 28.11.08

### Kamus SIGaP (PGIS Dictionary)

Apa yah yang dimaksud dengan Base Map? Kalau Community Mapping? Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini sering mengemuka di ranah PGIS, apa lagi di Indonesia yang belum begitu populer hal ihwal PGIS

Nah untuk menjawab ini saya mencoba memposting kamus PGIS. Kamus ini saya dapat di Web-nya IAPAD.

Absolute location: A point on the Earth's surface expressed by a coordinate system, such as latitude and longitude, or UTM.

Aggregation: A form of generalization that involves representing several similar nearby features (such as gardens or rock-piles) as a single, larger feature on a map.

Air photographs or aerial photographs: Remote-sensing photographs taken from an airplane.

Almanac: A continuously updated collection of data that a GPS receiver uses to determine the positions of the GPS satellites when it calculates coordinates.

Area feature: Something on the land - such as a plantation, hunting area, marsh, or lake - large enough to be depicted at scale on a map (shown with a polygon).

Asset allocation mapping (AAM): this enables communities to make informed decisions over the allocation of their territorial assets. To do this, they need not only to arrive at their own evaluations of these assets but also to understand the multiple values assigned to their assets by others: to map the ways in which assets are perceived, evaluated, imagined by an unfamiliar and mutating array of external interests (source: Peter Poole).

Attribute data: Information about a feature on a map or thematic information.

Azimuth: The angle (often in degrees) that a certain direction (to a landmark, for example) is from the north meridian at a certain place.

Base map: A map that contains geographical reference information on which attribute data may be plotted to make thematic maps.

Bearing: A directional measurement taken by an observer, or the measured angle (often in degrees) between the north meridian and the line joining the observer and the object. Directions or azimuths are bearings.

Blueprinting: An inexpensive method for replicating black-and-white drawings, such as maps. that have been drawn on translucent paper, through the use of a blueprinting machine.

Cartography: The art or science of making maps.

Clinometer: A device for measuring slope angles.

Cognitive map: a term introduced in the 30s by pioneer learning researcher, Edward Tolman, to describe what rats must have in their minds to successfully navigate mazes when routes are blocked or explored from different points. Although learning is from traversing routes, mental representations appear to integrate route experience into survey or overview knowledge. The term has been extended to humans to mean a schematic mental representation of the geographic world, usually the network of paths and nodes that enable navigation. The nature, coherence, flexibility, perspective, and accuracy of these representations are continuing topics of research (source: Barbara Twersky)

Community mapping: Community maps often represent a socially or culturally distinct understanding of landscape and include information that is excluded from mainstream maps, which usually represent the views of the dominant sectors of society. This style of map can therefore pose alternatives to the languages and images of the existing power structures. Community maps often differ considerably from mainstream maps in content, appearance and methodology. Indicators used to recognise and denote community maps include the following:

• Community mapping is defined by the process of production. Community maps are planned around a consensus based goal and strategy for use and made with input from a community in an open and inclusive process.

• Community mapping is defined by the content of the maps, which depict local knowledge and information and are often aimed at addressing local issues. They contain the community’s place names, symbols, and priority features and represent local knowledge systems.

Community mapping is not necessarily defined by the level of compliance with formal cartographic conventions. Nor are they confined by formal media: a community map may be a part of a GIS or a drawing in the sand.

Compass: A device for indicating direction, traditionally by the alignment of a magnetic needle that pivots to align with the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, though some recent models use electronic circuitry instead.

Compass Survey: See Traverse.'

Contour (line): On a map a line that joins places of equal height above sea level. On a given map, contour lines are normally at specific increments, such as 25 m or 40 m, depending on the scale and the terrain.

Conversion: A form of generalization that involves changing the way a feature (or group) is represented-for example, several point features may be represented with a polygon or a long, thin area may be depicted by a line symbol.

Coordinate: A pair of numbers that gives the location of a particular place on the Earth's surface in relation to a coordinate system, such as latitude and longitude or UTM.

Coordinate system: A pattern or network of crossing lines by which a position may be determined.

Counter maps: Alternative maps, or "counter-maps", greatly increase the power of people living in a mapped area to control representations of themselves and their claims to resources. Local people may exert control directly by making their own maps or entrust a representative of their choice, such as a local NGO, to perform the task. [. ] Counter-maps thus have the potential for challenging the omissions of human settlements from forest maps, for contesting the homogenization of space on political, zoning, or property maps, for altering the categories of land and forest management, and for expressing socio-spatial relationships rather than depicting abstract space in itself (Peluso, 1995). Counter-mapping can be used for alternative boundary-making and "to depict strategies of resistance: where to block [. ] unwise development, to identify landscapes that have been damaged, to describe alternatives to the incremental destruction of sustaining habitats" (Aberley, 1993:4) .

Cultural mapping can be used for making intangible heritage and local and indigenous knowledge systems easily visible and understandable. It should be demand driven, contextualized and community owned and controlled. It should create intercultural dialogue and allow communities – and especially elders – to reflect on their own knowledge and listen to each other. Respectful cultural mapping can reinforce a community’s consciousness of its specific cultural traditions, resources and institutions, and also of land use practices, education, health, conflict prevention etc. It should enable communities to be better prepared to express their rights, visions and priorities – especially when confronted with development interventions initiated by a third party. (source: adapted from UNESCO, 2006)

Database: A collection of information, for instance, about a particular community. A database is most useful if it is well organized and indexed.

Datum: A point from which other things are measured. This term (in full, geodetic datum or geocentric datum) can also refer to a cartographical system (specifically, a reference ellipsoid, such as WGS84) that is used to mathematically correct for irregularities in the Earth's sphericity, such as when using the GPS.

Declination (variation): The angle between the magnetic north meridian and the true north meridian at any given location. It is said to be 'east' or 'west' by a certain number of degrees according to whether the magnetic north meridian is east or west of the true north meridian.

Degree: A unit (abbreviated as °) for measuring direction as if from the centre of a circle. There are 360 degrees in a circle. Each degree can be subdivided into 60 minutes (abbre¬viated as '). Each minute can be divided into 60 seconds (abbreviated as "). Bearings and declination, for example, are usually (but not always) measured in degrees.

Differential GPS: A method of correcting for errors in GPS coordinates by using two receivers, one to rove and collect position data, the other to remain stationary at a known position to collect correction data that is transmitted to the roving receiver (or supplied to it at a later time).

Digitize: To convert an image, such as a map. into a form that a computer can store and manipulate through the use of special software (a computer program). Digitizing is usually done manually, with a digitizing tablet, but simply scanning the image may be suitable for some purposes.

Displacement: A form of generalization that involves moving close-set map symbols slightly out of their correct locations so that they do not overlap each other.
Dissolution: A form of generalization that involves combining two or more adjoining polygons representing somewhat different kinds of features into one polygon.

Easting: The part of a coordinate (such as longitude) that gives the east-west position.

Enhancement: A form of generalization - the opposite of simplification.

Ephemeral map: A temporary map such as a ground map. Intended to be kept for a short time only. This most basic mapmaking method consists in drawing maps on the ground. Informants use raw materials like soil, pebbles, sticks and leaves, to reproduce the physical and cultural landscapes in the manner they perceive them to be. Such ephemeral maps disappear in a matter of a wind blow. Acquired knowledge is memorised by participants and mentally recomposed when needed (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).

Ephemeris: A map and calendar of the movement of celestial bodies or satellites.

Equator: The great circle (0° latitude) that connects all points that are at an equal distance from the north and south poles.

Feature: A definable and relatively permanent thing on the land (such as a house, boulder, hill, river, road, boundary, field, forest type, hunting area, sacred site, etc.) that can be depicted on a map.

Field: To go into or to be in 'the field' refers to doing a field survey or field-checking a map.

Field-check: To verify the locations of features shown on a map by going out onto the land and observing - and possibly measuring - their relationships to other features.
Field survey: To go out on the land to observe the features and draw a map based on first¬hand observation—rather than drawing it from memory or descriptions or by interpreting remote-sensing data (see table-top mapping).

Frame: A rectangle in which a map or a map part, such as a legend, will be (or has been) drawn. Also, a drawing of a traverse that shows just the stations and the lines that join them, without sideshots or other details.

Generalization: The choosing of features and the method of their depiction in order to draw a clear and meaningful map: aspects of generalization include aggregation, conversion, displacement dissolution, enhancement, selection, simplification, and smoothing. The degree and kind of generalization should be consistent throughout any given map.

Geographic coordinate system: The grid system of latitude and longitude.

Geographic Information Technologies (GIT): a set of computer tools (hardware and software), techniques and geographic data used to collect, store, edit, query, manage, analyse and/or display geographically referenced information in order to map phenomena, understand spatial relationships among phenomena, derive new information, and facilitate geographic problem solving. Geographic information systems (GIS), the global positioning system (GPS), and satellite/aircraft remote sensing and imaging are examples of geographic information technologies used for digital mapping, spatial analysis, and other applications requiring location-based information and analysis (Source Jefferson Fox, 2006)

Georeferenced: Refers to a map or photo that has been geographically corrected, so that every point on it shows absolute location. For example, air photos and satellite images are georeferenced to correct for scale distortions inherent in the process of collecting data through remote sensing.

GIS (Geographic Information System): A computerized system for the collection, storage, and retrieval of geographic data.

GPS (Global Positioning System): A system of artificial satellites and ground units that enables a user with a portable receiver to determine absolute locations with good accuracy.

Gradian (also called “gon’ or ‘grade’): A unit of angular measure, an alternative to degrees. There are 400 gradians in a circle (100 in a right angle), so one gradian = 0.9°.

Graph paper: Paper printed with a pattern of intersecting lines parallel to the edges and at fixed increments (such as 5 mm or 1 mm).

Graph scale: A graphic representation of map scale proportions using a bar and numbers to indicate distance.

Grid: A pattern or network of crossing lines (such as on a map) by which a position may be determined.

Grid north: North as indicated by the north meridians of a particular map projection.

Ground map: A large and temporary map (perhaps 10mx10min size), constructed outside on the ground using leaves, rocks, beans, wood, reeds, or other materials, or created indoors using hats, shoes, rope, pieces of paper, etc.

Hip chain: A measuring tool, used in surveying and worn on a belt, that consists of a small plastic box containing a roll of thread. Pulling thread out of the box operates a counter that reads distance in meters and tenths of a meter.

Horizontal distance: Distance along the horizontal (as distinguished from slope distance).

Index: An alphabetical list of keywords that indicates where in a book or database each topic is discussed or mentioned.

Index contour: A contour line that is darker or thicker than the regular ones to assist in more quickly determining elevation. Index contours usually fall every fifth (or fourth) line and represent round-number elevations, such as 250 or 500 m.

Information unit: A piece of information for example, a story transcript, photograph, video¬tape, etc. that contains or depicts knowledge about the community, its land, its people, and its history.

Intersection: A survey technique that involves taking bearings from two known places to identify the location of a third, unknown location.

Keyword: A significant word (subject name or topic) that is used in indexing a collection of information (database) to make it easier to find specific pieces of information.

Knowledge (source: Leeuwis, 2004) can be considered as how we understand, give meaning, perceive or interpret the world around us . Knowledge is what we store in our mind and what leads us to take decisions, act and react to stimuli received from the external world. Knowledge is very subjective and builds up in everybody’s mind through a continuous learning process involving, among others, concrete experiences, interaction and communication with others, observations and reflections, formation of concepts and their testing. Three types of knowledge can be distinguished:

• Unconscious knowledge is characterised by perceptions/motives that we are not aware of.

• Tacit knowledge corresponds to knowledge that we are not immediately aware of, on which we base our day-to-day actions. This type of knowledge can be elicited through in-depth discussions and interactive exercises including the use of participatory 3D models.

• Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that we are aware of, have reflected upon and can easily capture in verbal, textual, physical or visual formats, and that transforms into information

Landmark: An obvious feature in the landscape.

LANDSAT: A specific kind of satellite image that shows a larger area than a SPOT image.
Latitude: Parallel lines running east-west around the globe measured in degrees north or south from the equator.

Legend: The part of a map (or an additional sheet) that explains what the symbols on the map mean.

Light table: A piece of drafting equipment that consists of a translucent work surface (with or without legs) with a light source beneath it, used to facilitate the copying of information from one sheet of paper (or plastic) to another.

Line feature: Something on the land that is relatively long and thin - such as a river, road, trail, or boundary its symbol on a map may be exaggerated in width if it would otherwise be too narrow to show at scale.

Local knowledge: ‘…is the sum total of the knowledge and skills which people in a particular geographic area possess, and which enable them to get the most out of their natural environment. Most of this knowledge and these skills have been passed down from earlier generations, but individual men and women in each generation adapt and add to this body of knowledge in a constant adjustment to changing circumstance and environmental conditions’ (source: IKDM, 1998).

Local spatial knowledge (LSK) ‘… describes home and action space, is innate and sustained knowledge about the land, identifies issues of immediate significance, and encodes the information about the environment in a language a region’s inhabitants understand’ (Duerden and Kuhn, 1996). It includes:

• Specific technical knowledge known only (or in detail, primarily) to the local people, e.g. local knowledge of soils, plants, water sources, medicines. Similar to the concept of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK).

• Spatial knowledge representing different viewpoints and understandings of local actors, (different from the dominant ‘official’ view). These different viewpoints can be reflected in counter maps.

• Mental maps, which are not usually based on standard geometry.

• Spiritual or mystical spatial knowledge associated with cultural spaces,

particularly with specific areas of land or resources. This may be interpreted as cosmovisions, which commonly incorporate the origin myths of indigenous, natural resource-dependent, cultures.

Location map: A small, small-scale map that shows where the land depicted on the main map is in relation to the whole state, province, or country.
Longitude: Meridian lines running north-south and joining at the poles measured in degrees from the Prime Meridian (0°).

Magnetic dip: The angle at which the Earth's magnetic field at a particular place would tilt a freely suspended magnetic needle relative to the horizontal. Some types of compass can and should be mechanically adjusted for use in different regions of the world.

Magnetic north: The direction of the meridian along which a freely suspended magnetic needle would lie if it were influenced only by the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetic north is constantly moving, albeit so slowly that in almost all locations this movement causes only negligible error in compass use.

Map: A picture of the land, a map is a graphic representation, often two-dimensional, of some part (or all) of the Earth's surface. There are many different kinds of maps.

Map interview: The process of talking to community members and asking questions to help them record their information about the land on a map in sketch form, or in words.

Map projection: A particular way (such as UTM) of depicting the curved surface of the Earth as a two-dimensional map through the use of a specific mathematical algorithm.

Map scale: The reduction needed to display a representation of the Earth's surface on a map. A statement of a measure on the map and the equivalent measure on the Earth's surface, often expressed as a representative fraction of distance, such as 1:10,000 (one unit of distance on the map represents 10,000 of the same units of distance on the Earth).

Map series: A set of thematic maps of the same area, or a set of maps (that were made with the same process and format) to cover a region too large to fit on one map sheet at the desired scale.

Map registration: A technique by which to align two or more maps. such as an overlay map and a base map using special registration marks (or special holes and pins).
Mental map: A map that represents the perceptions and knowledge that a person has of an area.

Media: mass, interpersonal or hybrid media are basis devices that help to combine different communication channels for the ‘transportation’ and exchange of ‘textual, visual, auditive, tactile and or olfactory signals. Hence different media can be used in the context of methods and methodologies (source: Leeuwis, 2004)

Mental maps: an alternative term for cognitive map. A map that represents the perceptions and knowledge that a person has of an area (source: IAPAD). Mental maps are associated with all cultures, ages, genders, types of people, though there are big cultural differences in how significant they are as spatial representations.

Meridian: A great circle around the Earth, or half of one. A meridian of longitude (or line of longitude) connects the north and south poles. The meridian of longitude that passes through any particular point can be called the north meridian for that point.

Methodologies are basically more or less a series of predefined steps, procedures and activities. Each step can involve the use or one or several methods. Methodologies are often known under a particular label or acronym, e.g. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) (source: Leeuwis, 2004).

Methods can be seen as a particular mode of using media and media combinations within the context of a confined activity. A method can (but need not) be and element in a methodology. Examples of methods include a workshop, a discussion group, a farm visit, a priority ranking (an element of e.g. PRA) (source: Leeuwis, 2004).

Mosaicing is the process of assembling a series of images and joining them together to form a continuous seamless photographic representation of the earth’s surface. These can be done manually on aerial photos or digitally with remote sensing images and scanned aerial photos or digital aerial photos (source: Silika Tuivanuavou, 2006).

Metre tape: A measuring tool used in surveying that is marked in meters. Basic models consist of a rolled nylon or fiberglass tape that extends to 30 or 50 m.

Mylar: A particular kind of drawing 'paper' made of plastic. It is available with one or both sides 'frosted' (matte) to take pencil or drawing ink.

NGO (Non-Governmental Organization): An organization, usually with humanitarian or environmental protection objectives, that is not controlled by a government, though it may
operate with the assistance of government funding. Many NGO projects are intended to aid indigenous peoples to protect or improve their quality of life.

North line: A line drawn on a map so as to align with a north meridian. It provides a refer¬ence line by which to measure bearings by using a compass or protractor.

Northing: The part of a coordinate (such as the latitude) that gives the north-south position.

Offset: The perpendicular distance from a traverse line to a parallel line or to a point.

Orientation: The positioning of a map so that its north line points to the Earth's true north.

Orthophoto: A perspective aerial photograph contains image displacements caused by the tilting of the camera and terrain relief (topography). It does not have a uniform scale. Distances cannot be measured on a conventional aerial photograph like one can do on a map. In an orthophoto the effects of tilt and relief are removed from the aerial photograph by the rectification process. Therefore an orthophoto is a uniform-scale photograph or photographic map. Since an orthophoto has a uniform scale, it is possible to measure directly on it like other maps. An orthophoto may serve as a base map onto which other map information may be overlaid (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)

Overlay map: A thematic map on tracing-paper (or on a plastic sheet) that is used in conjunction with a base map.

Panorama sketch: A landscape sketch made from a location that has a view of the surround¬ing terrain for a fair distance.

Parallel (of latitude): A circle on the Earth's surface that is parallel to the equator, but smaller and either to the north or south of it. A line of latitude.

Participatory 3D Modelling (P3DM): This method integrates indigenous spatial knowledge with data on elevation of the land and depth of the sea to produce stand-alone, scaled and geo-referenced relief models. Essentially based on indigenous spatial knowledge, land use and cover, and other features are depicted by informants on the model by the use of pushpins (points), yarns (lines) and paints (polygons). On completion, a scaled and geo-referenced grid is applied to facilitate data extraction or importation. Data depicted on the model are extracted, digitised and plotted. On completion of the exercise the model remains with the community (Source: Rambaldi and Callosa-Tarr, 2002)

Participatory GIS (PGIS) is an emergent practice in its own right. It is a result of merger between Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) methods with Geographic Information Technologies (GIT). PGISfacilitates the representation of local people’s spatial knowledge using two- or three-dimensional maps. These map products can be used to facilitate decision-making processes, as well as support communication and community advocacy. PGIS practice is geared towards community empowerment through tailored, demand-driven and user-friendly applications of these geo-spatial technologies. Good PGIS practice is flexible and adapts to different socio-cultural and biophysical environments. It often relies on the combination of ‘expert’ skills with local knowledge. Unlike traditional GIS applications, PGIS places control on access and use of culturally sensitive spatial data in the hands of those communities who generated it.

PGIS spatial analysis uses the functionality and data associated with GIS technology to explore community driven questions. In the process, local spatially referenced as well as non-spatial data are integrated and analysed to support discussion and decision-making processes. The spatial analytic functionalities allow much easier and rapid analysis by the users, of e.g. time and cost functions, of separation and contiguity, and of the effects of barriers and buffers (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).

Photographic map: see orthophoto.

PDOP (Precision Dilution of Position): PDOP is an estimate of the accuracy of a GPS position fix based on the quality of the satellite signals (which is a result of the satellite distribution at the time of the determination).

POC (Point of Commencement): The starting point for a survey route.

Point feature: Something - such as a sacred rock, house, or special tree that is too small to be drawn to scale on a particular map so it is instead represented by a standardized symbol that may be either abstract or stylized.

Polygon: A bounded area on a map that represents something (an area feature such as a lake, field, forest type, or hunting area) on the land that is large enough to be shown to scale. A polygon can be identified through the use of a particular color, pattern, or code.

Position Averaging: A method for improving the accuracy of GPS data that requires just one GPS receiver, which is set up to take a series of readings over a period of time.

PPGIS (Public Participation GIS): see ppgis

Practical ethics focuses on understanding and addressing difficult and controversial social issues arising in such fields as politics, economics, technology, healthcare, business, environmental conservation and education. Ethics more broadly investigates the meaning of the good, emphasising the role of values in raising and critically responding to questions of deep and abiding personal and common concern. Practical ethics requires resource managers who engage in mapping to follow clear protocols for explaining complex consequences of mapping to rural communities. This protocol requires outside actors to communicate clearly with each community, clarifying the purpose/objectives of collecting information, agreeing with villagers on what information can be mapped, and explaining potential consequences of recording the community's spatial information on maps that can then be copied and distributed outside the community. Most importantly, outside facilitators must communicate to villagers that they can agree to accept or reject the mapping exercise.

Prime meridian: Zero degrees longitude. Also known as the Greenwich Meridian because it was established at the Greenwich Observatory near London, England.

Projection: See map projection.

Protractor: A device, usually of clear plastic and circular or D-shaped, used to measure angles.

PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal): A set of techniques for including the local people in the documentation and analysis of local land issues.

Radian: A unit of angular measure, an alternative to degrees. There are 2 x pi radians in a circle, so one radian is approximately 57.3°.

Reference map: A base map that has been made more locally relevant by ground-checking (and correcting if necessary) major features and adding local landmarks and place names. 'Reference map' (or reference base map) may refer specifically to the final base map on which all the information from field surveys and other sources has been compiled.

Registration marks: Small marks (usually '+' symbols) used to simplify the aligning of two or more maps (such as tracing paper or plastic thematic maps on top of a base map) so that the features on the top map(s) are in their correct positions with respect to the features on the bottom map.

Relative location: A location of a place in relation to (for example, 600 m southwest of, or 100 m downhill from) another place (usually one whose absolute location is already known).

Remote sensing: The process of gathering information about the Earth from a distance. Such data is commonly gathered by satellite or air (aerial) photography.

Resection: A survey technique that involves taking bearings to two known places to deter¬mine the location of a third, unknown location at which you are standing.

Resolution: The smallest distance or size of object that can be seen in an image (as acquired, for instance, through remote sensing).

Satellite: A platform launched into close orbit around the Earth and used to carry electronic equipment that transmits information back to Earth. Some satellites are used to transmit pictures of the Earth from space back to Earth for remote sensing applications. The GPS uses 24 satellites that were made and launched specifically for transmitting signals to GPS receivers on Earth.

Scale mapping is a more sophisticated method of sketch mapping, aimed at generating geo-referenced data to facilitate discussions and allow community members to develop maps that can stand the scrutiny of adversarial parties. The method is based on effective selection of symbols and colours for depicting indigenous spatial knowledge on transparencies superimposed on a geo-coded and scaled map (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).

Selection: A form of generalization that involves choosing which of a number of features (or which parts thereof) to show on a map while omitting others.

Selective availability: A procedure by which the United States Department of Defense (USDoD) deliberately and intermittently interferes with the signals from GPS satellites so that civilian and other non-USDoD GPS receivers cannot calculate extremely precise locations, but their own units can. The errors thus introduced must be taken into account (and perhaps strategically minimized) by civilian GPS users.

Scale: The relationship between distance on a map and on the Earth's surface, usually represented as a ratio (for example, 1:10,000) or with a graph scale.

Sideshot: Along a survey route, a short branch or spur made for the purpose of accurately recording an important feature located a short distance to one side of the route.

Simplification: A form of generalization that involves deleting some of the surveyed points that show the path of a line feature or the boundary of a polygon so as to remove excessive detail.

Sketch map: A method for mapping on paper. A drawing of a place or area, not drawn with accurate or measured scale or direction. Features are depicted by the use of natural materials or more frequently by coloured marker pens or chalk. Participants usually have a range of choices regarding what materials to use for the drawing and how to visualise desired items. Features are exaggerated in size to match the importance participants attach to them. If properly facilitated, the process is documented and records are kept in terms of the keys necessary for interpreting depicted symbols. The lack of a consistent scale and geo-referencing of the data leaves room for subjective interpretation of the final map. A scale sketch map is a sketch given scale by fitting it onto a topographic map. without a field survey. (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).

Smoothing: A form of generalization that involves averaging (either by visual estimation or computation) the locations of the coordinates that define the surveyed path of a line feature or the boundary of a polygon so as to remove excessive detail, given the scale of the map, or to average measurement errors.

Slope Distance: A distance measured on sloping terrain that has not yet been converted to horizontal distance for plotting on a survey drawing or map.

Spatial Information Technologies (SIT): refer to Geographic Information Technologies (GIT)

SPOT: A specific kind of satellite image that covers a smaller area than a LANDSAT image and at a higher resolution (and usually at a higher cost per square kilometer).

Spot height: The exact height, shown with a number on a map of a particular place above some datum (usually mean sea level).

Station: A starting point or endpoint of a survey leg. Stations are where measurements of distance and bearings are taken and recorded, along with any relevant notes. The stations within each surveying project are sequentially numbered for identification.

Stereoscope: A device used to look at paired air (aerial) photography, making it possible to see features on the photographs in three-dimensional perspective.

Survey: To traverse a particular linear feature (such as a boundary or a river), or travel in some specific pattern across a particular area, with the purpose of recording the locations of features on the land and details about them for use in making a map. Surveying is often done with a compass and a meter tape: some surveys are done with a GPS receiver.

Survey chain: A surveying tool that consists of a nylon rope on which every tenth of a meter is marked by a metal clip.

Table-top mapping: The drawing of a map - or the addition of thematic information to an existing base map - using information from memory or from remote sensing or photographs or notes, rather than while actually out on the land doing a field survey.

Technologies consist of widespread patterns of material and conceptual practices that embody and deploy particular strategic values and meanings (Hershock 1999). Technologies are complex systems promoting and institutionalising relational patterns aimed at realizing particular ends. Technologies cannot be value neutral, and do not occur in isolation from one another but in families or lineages (Shrader-Frechette and Westra 1997 Hershock 1999). (Source: Mapping Power, 2004 Fox et al.)

Tenure mapping: this refers to a distinct genre of cartography that seems to have its roots in the cartographic evidence assembled in the early 1970s by Inuit and Cree in Quebec. This method was soon adopted by the Inuit throughout the Canadian Arctic and is now a mandatory element of over 50 territorial negotiations under way in British Columbia. Tenure mapping is about the past asset allocation mapping is about the future (source: Peter Poole, 2006)

Thematic map: A map that depicts specific themes or sets of information for example, forest type, land use, historical migration, property ownership, or animal habitat.

Three-dimensional (3-D): Refers to a map such as a cardboard relief map that extends above its base according to the height of the land—or to the image seen through a stereoscope.

Tools are products of technological processes. They are used by individual persons, corporations, or nations, and are evaluated based on their task-specific utility. If tools do not work, we exchange them, improve them, adapt them, or discard them (source: Fox et al., 2004. Tools and techniques are particular ways of operating a method. Whether something is defined a s a method or a tool is often debatable the boundaries are not sharp. A ranking exercise, for example, can involve drawing a matrix in the sand and using pebbles or stones as counters, or be conducted on a sheet of paper using stickers or markers. Similarly a farm visit in which farmers’ problems are discussed can be conducted in various modes (persuasive, participatory, counselling, etc.) (source: Leeuwis, 2004).

Topographic map: A contour map that shows human-made and natural physical features. A topographic map at a scale of 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 would be a good base map.

Topography: The shape or configuration of the Earth's surface used especially in regards to the part of it within visual range from some particular place.

Tracing paper: A lightweight and translucent drawing paper that allows the copying of images that can be seen through it.

Transect: Surveying in a straight line across the land, usually for the purpose of mapping or recording information along the line. Transects are often conducted for a resource inventory.

Transect sketch: A sketch map made by observing and drawing the features seen on both sides of the route as the mapmaker performs a transect. It can be from a bird's-eye perspective or a profile perspective.

Traverse: A survey done by walking along the ground with a compass and meter tape. The four types used in community mapping are linear, boundary (closed), grid, and radial.

Triangulation: A survey technique to find the location of an 'unknown' position on a map by using bearings to (or from) three known locations.

Type line: The outline (boundary) of a polygon drawn on a map.

UPS (Universal Polar Stereographic): A common map projection and grid system for the polar regions (poleward of 80°S and of 84°N) that is used in conjunction with the Universal Transverse Mercator grid.

UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator): A common map projection and grid system for the part of the Earth's surface between 84°N and 80°S that is widely used for topographic maps, air (aerial) photography, and satellite images. It divides this area into 1200 zones (each identified by a unique number-letter code, such as 28M) that are further subdivided and coded.

Variation: See 'Declination.' Watershed: The area that a certain river or lake and all its tributaries drain.

Visual approximation: This is a process where map readers or mapmakers make an approximation of a position of an object – or important feature, or an area of the object – just by looking at the feature on the map and plotting that feature digitally in relation to other existing features. It also refers to mapping of the new objects by mentally deducing the position and size of the object in relation to mapped features.

Waypoint: A surveying term used to describe a 'position fix' (the coordinates) of a place, especially if determined through the use of a GPS receiver. The waypoints in any given surveying project are sequentially numbered.

## History

Thematic maps didn't develop until the mid-17th century, because accurate base maps didn't exist before then. Once maps became accurate enough to correctly display coastlines, cities, and other boundaries, the first thematic maps were created. In 1686, for example, English astronomer Edmond Halley developed a star chart and published the first meteorological chart using base maps as his reference in an article he wrote about trade winds. In 1701, Halley published the first chart to show lines of magnetic variation, a thematic map that later became useful in navigation.

Halley's maps were largely used for navigation and study of the physical environment. In 1854, London doctor John Snow created the first thematic map used for problem analysis when he mapped cholera's spread throughout the city. He began with a base map of London's neighborhoods that included streets and water pump locations. He then mapped locations where people had died from cholera on that base map and found that the deaths clustered around one pump. He determined that the water coming from the pump was the cause of cholera.

The first map of Paris showing population density was developed by Louis-Leger Vauthier, a French engineer. It used isolines (lines connecting points of equal value) to show population distribution throughout the city. He is believed to have been the first to use isolines to display a theme that didn't have to do with physical geography.

## BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention is further described by way of non-limitative embodiments, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic drawing illustrating a system and method to detect foreign objects or abnormality on rail track according to an example embodiment

FIG. 2 is a schematic plan view drawing illustrating a system and method to detect foreign objects or abnormality on straight rail track according to an example embodiment

FIG. 3 is a schematic side view of FIG. 2

FIG. 4 is a schematic side view illustrating a system and method to detect foreign objects or abnormality on rail track when the train levels out from an upward inclination according to an example embodiment

FIG. 5 is a schematic side view illustrating a system and method to detect foreign objects or abnormality on rail track when the train levels out from a downward inclination according to an example embodiment

FIG. 6 is a schematic plan view of a system to detect foreign objects or abnormality on rail track when the train negotiates a curve on the railway track according to an example embodiment

FIG. 7 is a functional block diagram showing the principal components of a system to detect foreign objects or abnormality on rail track according to an example embodiment.

FIG. 8 is a block diagram illustrating various system devices for rail track scanning and foreign object or abnormality detection according to an example embodiment and

FIG. 9 is a functional block diagram of a processing system for rail track scanning and foreign object or abnormality detection according to an example embodiment.

## Mousewheel event being locked by map - Geographic Information Systems

William J. Zielinski Fredrick V. Schlexer Sean A. Parks Kristine L. Pilgrim Michael K. Schwartz

The landscape genetics framework is typically applied to broad regions that occupy only small portions of a species' range . Rarely is the entire range of a taxon the subject of study. We examined the landscape genetic structure of the endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra), whose isolated geographic range is found in a.

Angert, Amy L Sheth, Seema N Paul, John R

The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close- range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model wasmore » not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.« less

Heatwole, Harold Lillywhite, Harvey Grech, Alana

Recent, more accurate delineation of the distributions of sea kraits and prior dubious use of proxy temperatures and mean values in correlative studies requires re-assessment of the relationships of temperature and salinity as determinants of the size of the geographic ranges of sea kraits. Correcting the sizes of geographic ranges resolved the paradox of lack of correspondence of size of range with degree of terrestrialism, but did not form a definitive test of the theory. Recent ecological, physiological, and behavioural studies provide an example of the kind of approach likely to either validate or refute present theory.

Hedrick, R.P. Batts, W.N. Yun, S. Traxler, G.S. Kaufman, J. Winton, J.R.

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from populations of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagaxfrom the coastal waters of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and central and southern California, USA. The virus was also isolated from Pacific mackerel Scomber japonicus in southern California, from eulachon or smeltThaleichthys pacificus, and surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus pretiosus from Oregon, USA. Mortality and skin lesions typical of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in other marine fish species were observed among sardine in Canada and in a few surf smelt from Oregon, but the remaining isolates of VHSV were obtained from healthy appearing fish. The prevalence of VHSV among groups of apparently healthy sardine, mackerel and smelt ranged from 4 to 8% in California and Oregon. A greater prevalence of infection (58%) occurred in groups of sardine sampled in Canada that sustained a naturally occurring epidemic during 1998-99. A captive group of surf smelt in Oregon exhibited an 81% prevalence of infection with clinical signs in only a few fish. The new isolates were confirmed as North American VHSV and were closely related based on comparisons of the partial nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene. The VHSV isolates from sardine in Canada and California were the most closely related, differing from isolates obtained from other marine fish species and salmonids in British Columbia, Canada, Alaska and Washington, USA. These new virus isolations extend both the known hosts (sardine, mackerel and 2 species of smelt) and geographic range (Oregon and California, USA) of VHSV.

Remnant, Emily J Shi, Mang Buchmann, Gabriele Blacquière, Tjeerd Holmes, Edward C Beekman, Madeleine Ashe, Alyson

with high levels of picornaviruses. To examine the underlying viral diversity in honey bees, we employed viral metatranscriptomics analyses on three geographically diverse Varroa- resistant populations from Europe, Africa, and the Pacific. We describe seven novel viruses from a range of diverse viral families, including two viruses that are present in all three locations. In honey bees, small RNA sequences indicate that these viruses are processed by Dicer and the RNA interference pathway, whereas Varroa mites produce strikingly novel small RNA patterns. This work increases the number and diversity of known honey bee viruses and will ultimately contribute to improved disease management in our most important agricultural pollinator. Copyright © 2017 Remnant et al.

Shi, Mang Buchmann, Gabriele Blacquière, Tjeerd Beekman, Madeleine Ashe, Alyson

overwhelmed with high levels of picornaviruses. To examine the underlying viral diversity in honey bees, we employed viral metatranscriptomics analyses on three geographically diverse Varroa-resistant populations from Europe, Africa, and the Pacific. We describe seven novel viruses from a range of diverse viral families, including two viruses that are present in all three locations. In honey bees, small RNA sequences indicate that these viruses are processed by Dicer and the RNA interference pathway, whereas Varroa mites produce strikingly novel small RNA patterns. This work increases the number and diversity of known honey bee viruses and will ultimately contribute to improved disease management in our most important agricultural pollinator. PMID:28515299

Recognizing the promise of projects that engage non-scientists in scientific research as a context for informal science learning, National Geographic set out in 2009 to develop a technology infrastructure to support public participation in scientific research (PPSR), or citizen science, projects. As a result, NG has developed a web-based platform called FieldScope to host projects in which geographically distributed participants submit local observations or measurements to a shared database. This project is motivated by the observation that historically citizen science initiatives have been siloed using different technologies, and that these projects rarely provide participants with the opportunity to participate in data analysis or any other aspects of the scientific process except for collecting and contributing data. Therefore, FieldScope has been designed to support data visualization and analysis using geospatial technologies and aims to develop social networking tools for communicating and discussing findings. Since educational impact is the project's primary priority, FieldScope is also being designed with usability by novices in mind. In addition to engaging novices in participation in citizen science, the design of the application is also meant to engage students and others in working with geospatial technologies, in this case, web-based GIS. The project's goal is to create a single, powerful infrastructure for PPSR projects that any organization can use to create their own project and support their own community of participants. The FieldScope environment will serve as a hosting environment for PPSR projects following the model of hosted communities of practice that has become widespread on the web. The goal is to make FieldScope a publicly-available resource for any PPSR project on a no- or low-cost basis. It will also make synergies possible between projects that are collecting related data in the same geographic area. NG is now in the fourth year of an

. 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable. REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. (a) The.

. 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable. REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. (a) The.

. 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable. REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. (a) The.

. 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable. REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. (a) The.

. 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable. REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash. air-to-surface weapon range , restricted area. (a) The.

Fife, Dustin A. Mendoza, Jorge L. Terry, Robert

Though much research and attention has been directed at assessing the correlation coefficient under range restriction , the assessment of reliability under range restriction has been largely ignored. This article uses item response theory to simulate dichotomous item-level data to assess the robustness of KR-20 ([alpha]), [omega], and test-retest…

Dunhill, Alexander M Wills, Matthew A

Rates of extinction vary greatly through geological time, with losses particularly concentrated in mass extinctions. Species duration at other times varies greatly, but the reasons for this are unclear. Geographical range correlates with lineage duration amongst marine invertebrates, but it is less clear how far this generality extends to other groups in other habitats. It is also unclear whether a wide geographical distribution makes groups more likely to survive mass extinctions. Here we test for extinction selectivity amongst terrestrial vertebrates across the end-Triassic event. We demonstrate that terrestrial vertebrate clades with larger geographical ranges were more resilient to extinction than those with smaller ranges throughout the Triassic and Jurassic. However, this relationship weakened with increasing proximity to the end-Triassic mass extinction, breaking down altogether across the event itself. We demonstrate that these findings are not a function of sampling biases a perennial issue in studies of this kind.

Changes in the distribution and abundance of mangrove species within and outside of their historic geographic range can have profound consequences in the provision of ecosystem goods and services they provide. Mangroves in the conterminous United States (CONUS) are believed to be expanding poleward (north) due to decreases in the frequency and severity of extreme cold events, while sea level rise is a factor often implicated in the landward expansion of mangroves locally. We used

35 years of satellite imagery and in situ observations for CONUS and report that: (i) poleward expansion of mangrove forest is inconclusive, and may have stalled for now, and (ii) landward expansion is actively occurring within the historical northernmost limit. We revealed that the northernmost latitudinal limit of mangrove forests along the east and west coasts of Florida, in addition to Louisiana and Texas has not systematically expanded toward the pole. Mangrove area, however, expanded by 4.3% from 1980 to 2015 within the historic northernmost boundary, with the highest percentage of change in Texas and southern Florida. Several confounding factors such as sea level rise, absence or presence of sub-freezing temperatures, land use change, impoundment/dredging, changing hydrology, fire, storm, sedimentation and erosion, and mangrove planting are responsible for the change. Besides, sea level rise, relatively milder winters and the absence of sub-freezing temperatures in recent decades may be enabling the expansion locally. The results highlight the complex set of forcings acting on the northerly extent of mangroves and emphasize the need for long-term monitoring as this system increases in importance as a means to adapt to rising oceans and mitigate the effects of increased atmospheric CO2. PMID:27916810

Changes in the distribution and abundance of mangrove species within and outside of their historic geographic range can have profound consequences in the provision of ecosystem goods and services they provide. Mangroves in the conterminous United States (CONUS) are believed to be expanding poleward (north) due to decreases in the frequency and severity of extreme cold events, while sea level rise is a factor often implicated in the landward expansion of mangroves locally. We used

35 years of satellite imagery and in situ observations for CONUS and report that: (i) poleward expansion of mangrove forest is inconclusive, and may have stalled for now, and (ii) landward expansion is actively occurring within the historical northernmost limit. We revealed that the northernmost latitudinal limit of mangrove forests along the east and west coasts of Florida, in addition to Louisiana and Texas has not systematically expanded toward the pole. Mangrove area, however, expanded by 4.3% from 1980 to 2015 within the historic northernmost boundary, with the highest percentage of change in Texas and southern Florida. Several confounding factors such as sea level rise, absence or presence of sub-freezing temperatures, land use change, impoundment/dredging, changing hydrology, fire, storm, sedimentation and erosion, and mangrove planting are responsible for the change. Besides, sea level rise, relatively milder winters and the absence of sub-freezing temperatures in recent decades may be enabling the expansion locally. The results highlight the complex set of forcings acting on the northerly extent of mangroves and emphasize the need for long-term monitoring as this system increases in importance as a means to adapt to rising oceans and mitigate the effects of increased atmospheric CO₂.

Vasilakis, Nikos Guzman, Hilda Firth, Cadhla Forrester, Naomi L Widen, Steven G Wood, Thomas G Rossi, Shannan L Ghedin, Elodie Popov, Vsevolov Blasdell, Kim R Walker, Peter J Tesh, Robert B

The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes. Thirteen novel insect-specific virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in Indonesia, Thailand and the USA. By electron microscopy, the virions appeared as spherical particles with a diameter of

50 nm. Their 20,129 nt to 20,777 nt genomes consist of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a poly-A tail. Four isolates from Houston, Texas, and one isolate from Java, Indonesia, were identified as variants of the species Alphamesonivirus-1 which also includes Nam Dinh virus (NDiV) from Vietnam and Cavally virus (CavV) from Côte d'Ivoire. The eight other isolates were identified as variants of three new mesoniviruses, based on genome organization and pairwise evolutionary distances: Karang Sari virus (KSaV) from Java, Bontag Baru virus (BBaV) from Java and Kalimantan, and Kamphaeng Phet virus (KPhV) from Thailand. In comparison with NDiV, the three new mesoniviruses each contained a long insertion (180 - 588 nt) of unknown function in the 5' region of ORF1a, which accounted for much of the difference in genome size. The insertions contained various short imperfect repeats and may have arisen by recombination or sequence duplication. In summary, based on their genome organizations and phylogenetic relationships, thirteen new viruses were identified as members of the family Mesoniviridae, order Nidovirales. Species demarcation criteria employed previously for mesoniviruses would place five of these isolates in the same species as NDiV and CavV (Alphamesonivirus-1) and the other eight isolates would represent three new mesonivirus species (Alphamesonivirus-5, Alphamesonivirus-6 and Alphamesonivirus-7). The observed spatiotemporal distribution over widespread geographic regions and broad species host range in mosquitoes suggests that mesoniviruses may be common in mosquito populations worldwide.

In the present work, I introduce a hybrid wave function-density functional theory electronic structure method based on the range separation of the electron-electron Coulomb operator in order to recover dynamic electron correlations missed in the restricted active space configuration interaction (RASCI) methodology. The working equations and the computational algorithm for the implementation of the new approach, i.e., RAS-srDFT, are presented, and the method is tested in the calculation of excitation energies of organic molecules. The good performance of the RASCI wave function in combination with different short- range exchange-correlation functionals in the computation of relative energies represents a quantitative improvement with respect to the RASCI results and paves the path for the development of RAS-srDFT as a promising scheme in the computation of the ground and excited states where nondynamic and dynamic electron correlations are important.

In this paper, a new self-organizing map (SOM) based adaptation procedure is proposed to address the multiple watchman route problem with the restricted visibility range in the polygonal domain W. A watchman route is represented by a ring of connected neuron weights that evolves in W, while obstacles are considered by approximation of the shortest path. The adaptation procedure considers a coverage of W by the ring in order to attract nodes toward uncovered parts of W. The proposed procedure is experimentally verified in a set of environments and several visibility ranges . Performance of the procedure is compared with the decoupled approach based on solutions of the art gallery problem and the consecutive traveling salesman problem. The experimental results show the suitability of the proposed procedure based on relatively simple supporting geometrical structures, enabling application of the SOM principles to watchman route problems in W.

Marine fish species geographic distribution is known to reflect the individuals' response to changes in oceanic circulation, temperature, salinity, local geography, other species presence and/or abundance, food availability and other biotic and abiotic factors1. New and published records on the eastern Mediterranean fish, from the end of the Messinian salinity crisis to the present, are here examined, in correlation with palaeoenvironmental data, in order to draw conclusions regarding the abiotic parameters most affecting the fish distribution during the last 5 Ma in this area. This investigation shows that the environmental variables do not affect the fish fauna in a uniform way. Rather, three faunal components may be separated, each occupying a different depth range in the water column. Pelagic fish dwell for the most part on the uppermost 200 m, and their distribution seems to be affected mainly by climatic variability. Mesopelagic fish occupy mostly intermediate depths and their distribution is regulated by the prevailing water circulation patterns. Benthic and benthopelagic fish, which live close or in contact with the sea bottom, are mostly affected by the nature and depth of the substratum. Furthermore, examples from the Ionian2,3 and the Aegean Sea indicate that, during the last 5 Ma, large-scale range shifts, similar to those occurring today, frequently took place in this area. This observation significantly alters previously views on the stability of fish assemblages and the processes occurring today. Acknowledgments. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund. References 1 Wooton RJ. 1998. Ecology of teleost fishes,Fish and Fisheries Series,24.Kluwers.392p. 2

Angel, Lauren P. Barker, Sophie Berlincourt, Maud Tew, Emma Warwick-Evans, Victoria Arnould, John P. Y.

ABSTRACT During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range . Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

Angel, Lauren P Barker, Sophie Berlincourt, Maud Tew, Emma Warwick-Evans, Victoria Arnould, John P Y

During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range . Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Collinson, Margaret Barke, Judith van der Burgh, Johan van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna Pearce, Martin Bujak, Jonathan Brinkhuis, Henk

Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14 and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle

Background The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes. Findings Thirteen novel insect-specific virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in Indonesia, Thailand and the USA. By electron microscopy, the virions appeared as spherical particles with a diameter of

50 nm. Their 20,129 nt to 20,777 nt genomes consist of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a poly-A tail. Four isolates from Houston, Texas, and one isolate from Java, Indonesia, were identified as variants of the species Alphamesonivirus-1 which also includes Nam Dinh virus (NDiV) from Vietnam and Cavally virus (CavV) from Côte d’Ivoire. The eight other isolates were identified as variants of three new mesoniviruses, based on genome organization and pairwise evolutionary distances: Karang Sari virus (KSaV) from Java, Bontag Baru virus (BBaV) from Java and Kalimantan, and Kamphaeng Phet virus (KPhV) from Thailand. In comparison with NDiV, the three new mesoniviruses each contained a long insertion (180 – 588 nt) of unknown function in the 5’ region of ORF1a, which accounted for much of the difference in genome size. The insertions contained various short imperfect repeats and may have arisen by recombination or sequence duplication. Conclusions In summary, based on their genome organizations and phylogenetic relationships, thirteen new viruses were identified as members of the family Mesoniviridae, order Nidovirales. Species demarcation criteria employed previously for mesoniviruses would place five of these isolates in the same species as NDiV and CavV (Alphamesonivirus-1) and the other eight isolates would represent three new mesonivirus species (Alphamesonivirus-5, Alphamesonivirus-6 and Alphamesonivirus-7). The observed spatiotemporal distribution over widespread geographic regions and broad species host range in mosquitoes suggests that mesoniviruses may be common in

Mapping potentially suitable habitat is critical for effective species conservation and management but can be challenging in areas exhibiting complex heterogeneity. An approach that combines non-intrusive spatial data collection techniques and field data can lead to a better understanding of landscapes and species distributions. Nysius wekiuicola, commonly known as the wēkiu bug, is the most studied arthropod species endemic to the Maunakea summit in Hawai`i, yet details about its geographic distribution and habitat use remain poorly understood. To predict the geographic distribution of N. wekiuicola, MaxEnt habitat suitability models were generated from a diverse set of input variables, including fifteen years of species occurrence data, high resolution digital elevation models, surface mineralogy maps derived from hyperspectral remote sensing, and climate data. Model results indicate that elevation (78.2 percent), and the presence of nanocrystalline hematite surface minerals (13.7 percent) had the highest influence, with lesser contributions from aspect, slope, and other surface mineral classes. Climatic variables were not included in the final analysis due to auto-correlation and coarse spatial resolution. Biotic factors relating to predation and competition also likely dictate wēkiu bug capture patterns and influence our results. The wēkiu bug range and habitat suitability models generated as a result of this study will be directly incorporated into management and restoration goals for the summit region and can also be adapted for other arthropod species present, leading to a more holistic understanding of metacommunity dynamics. Key words: Microhabitat, Structure from Motion, Lidar, MaxEnt, Habitat Suitability

Zimmer, Stefanie M. Krehenwinkel, Henrik Schneider, Jutta M.

Few studies investigated whether rapid range expansion is associated with an individual's short-term fitness costs due to an increased risk of inbred mating at the front of expansion. In mating systems with low male mating rates both sexes share potential inbreeding costs and general mechanisms to avoid or reduce these costs are expected. The spider Argiope bruennichi expanded its range recently and we asked whether rapid settlement of new sites exposes individuals to a risk of inbreeding. We sampled four geographically separated subpopulations, genotyped individuals, arranged matings and monitored hatching success. Hatching success was lowest in egg-sacs derived from sibling pairs and highest in egg-sacs derived from among-population crosses, while within-population crosses were intermediate. This indicates that inbreeding might affect hatching success in the wild. Unlike expected, differential hatching success of within- and among-population crosses did not correlate with genetic distance of mating pairs. In contrast, we found high genetic diversity based on 16 microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene in all populations. Our results suggest that even a very recent settlement secures the presence of genetically different mating partners. This leads to costs of inbreeding since the population is not inbred. PMID:24759976

Cook, Lyn G Hardy, Nate B Crisp, Michael D

To understand the generation and maintenance of biodiversity hotspots, we tested three major hypotheses: rates of diversification, ecological limits to diversity, and time for species accumulation. Using dated molecular phylogenies, measures of species' range size and geographical clade overlap, niche modelling, and lineages-through-time plots of Australian Fabaceae, we compared the southwest Australia Floristic Region (SWAFR a global biodiversity hotspot) with a latitudinally equivalent non-hotspot, southeast Australia (SEA). Ranges of species (real and simulated) were smaller in the SWAFR than in SEA. Geographical overlap of clades was significantly greater for Daviesia in the SWAFR than in SEA, but the inverse for Bossiaea. Lineage diversification rates over the past 10 Myr did not differ between the SWAFR and SEA in either genus. Interaction of multiple factors probably explains the differences in measured diversity between the two regions. Steeper climatic gradients in the SWAFR probably explain the smaller geographical ranges of both genera there. Greater geographical overlap of clades in the SWAFR, combined with a longer time in the region, can explain why Daviesia is far more species-rich there than in SEA. Our results indicate that the time for speciation and ecological limits hypotheses, in concert, can explain the differences in biodiversity. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

Hileman, Eric T King, Richard B Adamski, John M Anton, Thomas G Bailey, Robyn L Baker, Sarah J Bieser, Nickolas D Bell, Thomas A Bissell, Kristin M Bradke, Danielle R Campa, Henry Casper, Gary S Cedar, Karen Cross, Matthew D DeGregorio, Brett A Dreslik, Michael J Faust, Lisa J Harvey, Daniel S Hay, Robert W Jellen, Benjamin C Johnson, Brent D Johnson, Glenn Kiel, Brooke D Kingsbury, Bruce A Kowalski, Matthew J Lee, Yu Man Lentini, Andrew M Marshall, John C Mauger, David Moore, Jennifer A Paloski, Rori A Phillips, Christopher A Pratt, Paul D Preney, Thomas Prior, Kent A Promaine, Andrew Redmer, Michael Reinert, Howard K Rouse, Jeremy D Shoemaker, Kevin T Sutton, Scott VanDeWalle, Terry J Weatherhead, Patrick J Wynn, Doug Yagi, Anne

Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size-fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range . We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size-fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change.

King, Richard B. Adamski, John M. Anton, Thomas G. Bailey, Robyn L. Baker, Sarah J. Bieser, Nickolas D. Bell, Thomas A. Bissell, Kristin M. Bradke, Danielle R. Campa, Henry Casper, Gary S. Cedar, Karen Cross, Matthew D. DeGregorio, Brett A. Dreslik, Michael J. Faust, Lisa J. Harvey, Daniel S. Hay, Robert W. Jellen, Benjamin C. Johnson, Brent D. Johnson, Glenn Kiel, Brooke D. Kingsbury, Bruce A. Kowalski, Matthew J. Lee, Yu Man Lentini, Andrew M. Marshall, John C. Mauger, David Moore, Jennifer A. Paloski, Rori A. Phillips, Christopher A. Pratt, Paul D. Preney, Thomas Prior, Kent A. Promaine, Andrew Redmer, Michael Reinert, Howard K. Rouse, Jeremy D. Shoemaker, Kevin T. Sutton, Scott VanDeWalle, Terry J. Weatherhead, Patrick J. Wynn, Doug Yagi, Anne

Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size–fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range . We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size–fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change. PMID:28196149

The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use- restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on themore » NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

Hobbs, Jean-Paul A. Jones, G. P. Munday, P. L.

Determining the species most vulnerable to increasing degradation of coral reef habitats requires identification of the ecological traits that increase extinction risk. In the terrestrial environment, endemic species often face a high risk of extinction because of an association among three traits that threaten species persistence: small geographic range size, low abundance and ecological specialisation. To test whether these traits are associated in coral reef fishes, this study compared abundance and specialisation in endemic and widespread angelfishes at the remote Christmas and Cocos Islands in the Indian Ocean. The interrelationships among traits conferring high extinction risk in terrestrial communities did not apply to these fishes. Endemic angelfishes were 50-80 times more abundant than widespread species at these islands. Furthermore, there was no relationship between abundance and ecological specialisation. Endemic species were not more specialised than widespread congeners and endemics used similar resources to many widespread species. Three widespread species exhibited low abundance and some degree of specialisation, which may expose them to a greater risk of local extinction. For endemic species, high abundance and lack of specialisation on susceptible habitats may compensate for the global extinction risk posed by having extremely small geographic ranges . However, recent extinctions of small range reef fishes confirm that endemics are not immune to the increasing severity of large-scale disturbances that can affect species throughout their geographic range .

Zhang, Yifan Gao, Xunzhang Peng, Xuan Ye, Jiaqi Li, Xiang

The High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) recognition has attracted great concern in the field of Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR). However, traditional HRRP recognition methods failed to model high dimensional sequential data efficiently and have a poor anti-noise ability. To deal with these problems, a novel stochastic neural network model named Attention-based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine (ARTRBM) is proposed in this paper. RTRBM is utilized to extract discriminative features and the attention mechanism is adopted to select major features. RTRBM is efficient to model high dimensional HRRP sequences because it can extract the information of temporal and spatial correlation between adjacent HRRPs. The attention mechanism is used in sequential data recognition tasks including machine translation and relation classification, which makes the model pay more attention to the major features of recognition. Therefore, the combination of RTRBM and the attention mechanism makes our model effective for extracting more internal related features and choose the important parts of the extracted features. Additionally, the model performs well with the noise corrupted HRRP data. Experimental results on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) dataset show that our proposed model outperforms other traditional methods, which indicates that ARTRBM extracts, selects, and utilizes the correlation information between adjacent HRRPs effectively and is suitable for high dimensional data or noise corrupted data.

Sunday, Jennifer M Pecl, Gretta T Frusher, Stewart Hobday, Alistair J Hill, Nicole Holbrook, Neil J Edgar, Graham J Stuart-Smith, Rick Barrett, Neville Wernberg, Thomas Watson, Reg A Smale, Dan A Fulton, Elizabeth A Slawinski, Dirk Feng, Ming Radford, Ben T Thompson, Peter A Bates, Amanda E

Species' ranges are shifting globally in response to climate warming, with substantial variability among taxa, even within regions. Relationships between range dynamics and intrinsic species traits may be particularly apparent in the ocean, where temperature more directly shapes species' distributions. Here, we test for a role of species traits and climate velocity in driving range extensions in the ocean-warming hotspot of southeast Australia. Climate velocity explained some variation in range shifts, however, including species traits more than doubled the variation explained. Swimming ability, omnivory and latitudinal range size all had positive relationships with range extension rate, supporting hypotheses that increased dispersal capacity and ecological generalism promote extensions. We find independent support for the hypothesis that species with narrow latitudinal ranges are limited by factors other than climate. Our findings suggest that small- ranging species are in double jeopardy, with limited ability to escape warming and greater intrinsic vulnerability to stochastic disturbances. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

Chardon, Nathalie I. Cornwell, William K. Flint, Lorraine E. Flint, Alan L. Ackerly, David D.

With changing climate, many species are projected to move poleward or to higher elevations to track suitable climates. The prediction that species will move poleward assumes that geographically marginal populations are at the edge of the species' climatic range . We studied Pinus coulteri from the center to the northern (poleward) edge of its range , and examined three scenarios regarding the relationship between the geographic and climatic margins of a species' range . We used herbarium and iNaturalist.org records to identify P. coulteri sites, generated a species distribution model based on temperature, precipitation, climatic water deficit, and actual evapotranspiration, and projected suitability under future climate scenarios. In fourteen populations from the central to northern portions of the range , we conducted field studies and recorded elevation, slope and aspect (to estimate solar insolation) to examine relationships between local and regional distributions. We found that northern populations of P. coulteri do not occupy the cold or wet edge of the species' climatic range mid-latitude, high elevation populations occupy the cold margin. Aspect and insolation of P. coulteri populations changed significantly across latitudes and elevations. Unexpectedly, northern, low-elevation stands occupy north-facing aspects and receive low insolation, while central, high-elevation stands grow on more south-facing aspects that receive higher insolation. Modeled future climate suitability is projected to be highest in the central, high elevation portion of the species range , and in low-lying coastal regions under some scenarios, with declining suitability in northern areas under most future scenarios. For P. coulteri, the lack of high elevation habitat combined with a major dispersal barrier may limit northward movement in response to a warming climate. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of distinguishing geographically vs. climatically marginal populations, and the

Ireland, Kylie B. Hardy, Giles E. St. J. Kriticos, Darren J.

Phytophthora ramorum, an invasive plant pathogen of unknown origin, causes considerable and widespread damage in plant industries and natural ecosystems of the USA and Europe. Estimating the potential geographical range of P. ramorum has been complicated by a lack of biological and geographical data with which to calibrate climatic models. Previous attempts to do so, using either invaded range data or surrogate species approaches, have delivered varying results. A simulation model was developed using CLIMEX to estimate the global climate suitability patterns for establishment of P. ramorum. Growth requirements and stress response parameters were derived from ecophysiological laboratory observations and site-level transmission and disease factors related to climate data in the field. Geographical distribution data from the USA (California and Oregon) and Norway were reserved from model-fitting and used to validate the models. The model suggests that the invasion of P. ramorum in both North America and Europe is still in its infancy and that it is presently occupying a small fraction of its potential range . Phytophthora ramorum appears to be climatically suited to large areas of Africa, Australasia and South America, where it could cause biodiversity and economic losses in plant industries and natural ecosystems with susceptible hosts if introduced. PMID:23667628

Anderegg, Leander D L HilleRisLambers, Janneke

Range shifts are among the most ubiquitous ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change and have large consequences for ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ecophysiological forces that constrain range boundaries are poorly understood, making it difficult to mechanistically project range shifts. To explore the physiological mechanisms by which drought stress controls dry range boundaries in trees, we quantified elevational variation in drought tolerance and in drought avoidance-related functional traits of a widespread gymnosperm (ponderosa pine - Pinus ponderosa) and angiosperm (trembling aspen - Populus tremuloides) tree species in the southwestern USA. Specifically, we quantified tree-to-tree variation in growth, water stress (predawn and midday xylem tension), drought avoidance traits (branch conductivity, leaf/needle size, tree height, leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio), and drought tolerance traits (xylem resistance to embolism, hydraulic safety margin, wood density) at the range margins and range center of each species. Although water stress increased and growth declined strongly at lower range margins of both species, ponderosa pine and aspen showed contrasting patterns of clinal trait variation. Trembling aspen increased its drought tolerance at its dry range edge by growing stronger but more carbon dense branch and leaf tissues, implying an increased cost of growth at its range boundary. By contrast, ponderosa pine showed little elevational variation in drought-related traits but avoided drought stress at low elevations by limiting transpiration through stomatal closure, such that its dry range boundary is associated with limited carbon assimilation even in average climatic conditions. Thus, the same climatic factor (drought) may drive range boundaries through different physiological mechanisms - a result that has important implications for process-based modeling approaches to tree biogeography. Further, we show that comparing intraspecific patterns of

Two fundamental symbiosis-based trophic types are recognized among Zoanthidea (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): fixed carbon is either obtained directly from zooxanthellae photosymbionts or from environmental sources through feeding with the assistance of host-invertebrate behaviour and structure. Each trophic type is characteristic of the suborders of Zoanthidea and is associated with substantial distributional asymmetries: suborder Macrocnemina are symbionts of invertebrates and have global geographic and bathymetric distributions and suborder Brachycnemina are hosts of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and are restricted to tropical photic zones. While exposure to solar radiation could explain the bathymetric asymmetry it does not explain the geographic asymmetry, nor is it clear why evolutionary transitions to the zooxanthellae-free state have apparently occurred within Macrocnemina but not within Brachycnemina. To better understand the transitions between symbiosis-based trophic types of Zoanthidea, a concatenated data set of nuclear and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences were used to test hypotheses of monophyly for groups defined by morphology and symbiosis, and to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions of morphological and symbiotic characters. The results indicate that the morphological characters that define Macrocnemina are plesiomorphic and the characters that define its subordinate taxa are homoplasious. Symbioses with invertebrates have ancient and recent transitions with a general pattern of stability in host associations through evolutionary time. The reduction in distribution of Zoanthidea is independent of the evolution of zooxanthellae symbiosis and consistent with hypotheses of the benefits of invertebrate symbioses, indicating that the ability to persist in most habitats may have been lost with the termination of symbioses with invertebrates.

Vonnahme, K A Hess, B W Nijland, M J Nathanielsz, P W Ford, S P

Maternal nutrient restriction from early to midgestation can lead to fetal growth retardation, with long-term impacts on offspring growth, physiology, and metabolism. We hypothesized that ewes from flocks managed under markedly different environmental conditions and levels of nutrition might differ in their ability to protect their own fetus from a bout of maternal nutrient restriction . We utilized multiparous ewes of similar breeding, age, and parity from 2 flocks managed as 1) ewes adapted to a nomadic existence and year-long, limited nutrition near Baggs, WY (Baggs ewes), and 2) University of Wyoming ewes with a sedentary lifestyle and continuous provision of more than adequate nutrition (UW ewes). Groups of Baggs ewes and UW ewes were fed 50 (nutrient restricted ) or 100% (control fed) of National Research Council recommendations from d 28 to 78 of gestation, then necropsied, and fetal and placental data were obtained. Although there was a marked decrease (P restricted vs. control fed UW ewes, there was no difference in these fetal measurements between nutrient- restricted and control-fed Baggs ewes. Nutrient- restricted and control-fed UW ewes exhibited predominantly type A placentomes on d 78, but there were fewer (P c0.05) type A and greater (P restricted than control-fed Baggs ewes. Placental efficiency (fetal weight/placentomal weight) was reduced (P = 0.04) in d 78 nutrient- restricted UW ewes when compared with control-fed UW ewes. In contrast, nutrient- restricted and control-fed Baggs ewes exhibited similar placental efficiencies on d 78. This is the first report of different placental responses to a nutritional challenge during pregnancy when ewes were selected under different management systems. These data are consistent with the concept that Baggs ewes or their conceptuses, which were adapted to both harsh environments and

Ogden, Nick H. Mechai, Samir Margos, Gabriele

The geographic ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogens are changing due to global and local environmental (including climatic) changes. In this review we explore current knowledge of the drivers for changes in the ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogen species and strains via effects on their basic reproduction number (R0), and the mechanisms of dispersal that allow ticks and tick-borne pathogens to invade suitable environments. Using the expanding geographic distribution of the vectors and agent of Lyme disease as an example we then investigate what could be expected of the diversity of tick-borne pathogens during the process of range expansion, and compare this with what is currently being observed. Lastly we explore how historic population and range expansions and contractions could be reflected in the phylogeography of ticks and tick-borne pathogens seen in recent years, and conclude that combined study of currently changing tick and tick-borne pathogen ranges and diversity, with phylogeographic analysis, may help us better predict future patterns of invasion and diversity. PMID:24010124

### Background

Exposure metrics that identify spatial contrasts in multipollutant air quality are needed to better understand multipollutant geographies and health effects from air pollution. Our aim is to improve understanding of: (1) long-term spatial distributions of multiple pollutants and (2) demographic characteristics of populations residing within areas of differing air quality.

### Methods

We obtained average concentrations for ten air pollutants (p = 10) across a 12 km grid (n = 253) covering Atlanta, Georgia for 2002–2008. We apply a self-organizing map (SOM) to our data to derive multipollutant patterns observed across our grid and classify locations under their most similar pattern (i.e, multipollutant spatial type (MST)). Finally, we geographically map classifications to delineate regions of similar multipollutant characteristics and characterize associated demographics.

### Results

We found six MSTs well describe our data, with profiles highlighting a range of combinations, from locations experiencing generally clean air to locations experiencing conditions that were relatively dirty. Mapping MSTs highlighted that downtown areas were dominated by primary pollution and that suburban areas experienced relatively higher levels of secondary pollution. Demographics show the largest proportion of the overall population resided in downtown locations experiencing higher levels of primary pollution. Moreover, higher proportions of nonwhites and children in poverty reside in these areas when compared to suburban populations that resided in areas exhibiting relatively lower pollution.

### Conclusion

Our approach reveals the nature and spatial distribution of differential pollutant combinations across urban environments and provides helpful insights for identifying spatial exposure and demographic contrasts for future health studies.